Geografi ; natur ; klima ; demografi ; historie ; ophørte fredsbevægelser ; ophørte politiske partier ; ophørte sociale bevægelser ; krige ; kultur ; biblioteker ; kunst ; film; musik ; musikorganisationer ; folkemusik ; jazz ; pop ; rock ; musiklitteratur ; politik: indenrigspolitik ; udenrigspolitik ; præsidenter ; regering ; lovgivende forsamling ; valg ; militær ; kernevåben ; aktuelle politiske partier 2010 ; aktuelle fredsbevægelser ; militærnægterorganisationer ; religion ; aktuelle sociale bevægelser ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; universiteter ; økonomi ; våbenhandel.

Kendte Amerikanske efterretnings- og

Det lovgivningsmæssige grundlag for USAs nuværende efterret-ningstjenester og deres virksomhed er Lov om national sikkerhed / the National Security Act fra 1947 med senere ændringer og tilføjelser, hvori forskellige efterretningsoperationer defineres.
Heri defineres eksempelvis hemmelige operationer som: »den amerikanske regerings handling eller aktiviteter til at påvirke politiske, økonomiske, eller militære forhold i udlandet, hvor det er hensigten, at den rolle De Forenede Staters regering har ikke vil være synlige eller anerkendt offentligt«.
Det var denne formulering - og lovgivernes manglende kontrol med efterretningtjenesterne som bl.a. muliggjorde Iran-Contra skan-dalerne under præsident Ronald Reagan embedsperiode.
United States Intelligence Community
The legislative basis for America's current intelligence services and their operations are the National Security Act of 1947 and subsequent amendments and additions in which various intelligence operations are defined. They define covert operations as: "the U.S. government action or actions to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly." It was this formula - and legislators' lack of control of intelligence services in particular that enabled the Iran-Contra scandals under President Ronald Reagan's term of office.
CRS: Intelligence Spending: In Brief. / : Anne Daugherty Milesm 2016.
'This report examines intelligence funding over the past several decades, with an emphasis on the period from 2007-2016—the period in which total national and military intelligence program spending dollars have been publicly disclosed on an annual basis.
Total intelligence spending is usually understood as the combination of (1) the National Intelligence Program (NIP), which covers the programs, projects, and activities of the intelligence community oriented towards the strategic needs of decision makers, and (2) the Military Intelligence Program (MIP), which funds defense intelligence activity intended to support tactical military operations and priorities.'
CRS: Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes, Governing Wiretapping an Electronic Eavesdropping. / : Gina Stevens ; Charles Doyle. October 9, 2012. - 162 s.
'This report provides an overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). ECPA consists of three parts. The first, often referred to as Title III, outlaws wiretapping and electronic eavesdropping, except as otherwise provided. The second, the Stored Communications Act, governs the privacy of, and government access to, the content of electronic communications and to related records. The third outlaws the use and installation of pen registers and of trap and trace devices, unless judicially approved for law enforcement or intelligence gathering purposes.'
Se også: Battlefield Surveillance Brigades ; biometric-enabled intelligence ; the Defense Intelligence Space Threat Committee ; Center For the Study of Intelligence ; Director of National Intelligence ; the Joint Military Intelligence Program ; Military Intelligence Corps ; National Declassification Center ; The National Intelligence Program ; National Security Action Memoranda ; National Security Resources Board ; Original Classification Authority ; Original Classification Decisions ; President's Intelligence Advisory Board ; Security Classification Appeals Panel ; security cleared personnel ; stovepiping ; Subversive Activities Control Board, 1950-1973 ; Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities ; the United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States 1974-1965 ; the US Army Intelligence Museum ; Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity.


National Security Act of 1947. Bibliography Branch, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center, Maxwell AFB, AL. August 2007.
Director of National Intelligence: Intelligence Community Directives -
CRS: Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses. / : Richard M. Thompson II. 2012. - 23 s.
CRS: Intelligence Spending and Appropriations: Issues for Congress. / : Marshall C. Erwin ; Amy Belasco. 2013. - 20 s.
'It is now publicly acknowledged that intelligence appropriations are a significant component of the federal budget, over $78 billion in FY2012 for both the national and military intelligence programs. Limited publicly available data suggests intelligence spending, measured in constant 2014 dollars, has roughly doubled since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and, before declines over the last three years, was almost double spending at its peak at the end of the cold war. The recent disclosure by the Washington Post of details from the Administration’s FY2013 National Intelligence Program (NIP) budget request may spark further debate about intelligence spending.
Intelligence spending is spread across the seventeen organizations comprising the intelligence community. Over 90% of NIP funding, which focuses on strategic needs of decision makers and is notionally under DNI control, falls within the Department of Defense (DOD) budget. DOD members of the intelligence community also receive funding for tactical intelligence from the Military Intelligence Program (MIP), which is under the authority of the Secretary of Defense but which may fund intelligence collection platforms that could be used for both tactical and strategic purposes. The remaining portions of the NIP fall within several other cabinet departments and two independent agencies.
CRS: Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities./ : Elizabeth B. Bazan, Gina Marie Stevens, and Brian T. Yeh. 2007. - 21 s.
CRS: Intelligence Authorization Legislation Status and Challenges. / : Richard F. Grimmett; Rebecca S. Lange. 2012. - 19 s.
'In May 2011, Congress passed the Intelligence Authorization Act for FY2011, which did contain a classified schedule of authorizations; on June 8, the President signed the bill and it became P.L. 112-18. In December 2011, both the House and Senate passed H.R. 1892, the Intelligence Authorization for FY2012, which also contained a classified schedule. H.R. 1892 was signed into law by the President on January 3, 2012 (P.L. 112-87). Annual intelligence authorization acts were first passed in 1978 after the establishment of the two congressional intelligence committees and were enacted every year until 2005.'
CRS: Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC): Selection of Judges. / : Vivian S. Chu. 2014.
'In the past year, the decisions and functions of the courts established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) have received much public attention. FISA established two courts—the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) and the FISA Court of Review— which have jurisdiction to review government applications to conduct electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. Various proposals have been introduced in Congress to amend the law that authorizes such surveillance and to change the internal practices and procedures of the courts. This report focuses on those proposals that would amend the process for selecting the judges who serve on the FISC and FISA Court of Review.
Under the existing framework, the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court “designates” existing federal judges to serve on the FISA courts. While critics have argued that the current process is partisan and lacks political accountability, transparency, and oversight, the Director of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, acting on behalf of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, has expressed concern regarding proposals that would change the existing framework. Proposals that would alter the process for selecting FISA judges include S. 1460, the FISA Judge Selection Reform Act, which would effectively shift authority to the chief judges of the circuit courts; H.R. 2761, the Presidential Appointment of FISA Court Judges Act, which would authorize the President to choose FISA judges with the advice and consent of the Senate; and H.R. 2586, the FISA Court Accountability Act, which would permit Members of Congress to select FISA judges.'
Hillhouse, R.J.: Outsourcing Intelligence: How Bush Gets His National Intelligence from Private Companies : Private corporations are now a major staple of national intelligence and are heavily involved in producing the most important and most sensitive national security document -- the President's Daily Brief. The Nation, July 31, 2007 .
National Security Archive: U.S. Espionage and Intelligence: Organization, Operations, and Management, 1947-1996.
This publication 'publishes together for the first time recent unclassified and newly declassified documents pertaining to the organizational structure, operations, and management of the U.S. intelligence community over the last fifty years, cross-indexed for maximum accessibility. This set reproduces on microfiche 1,174 organizational histories, memoranda, manuals, regulations, directives, reports, and studies, representing over 36,102 pages of documents from the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, National Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, military service intelligence organizations, National Security Council and other organizations'.
National Security Archive: U.S. Intelligence Policy Documentation Project
Overhead Imagery: The U.S. Target : New Documents Trace Controversial Use of Drones and other Aerial Surveillance for Domestic National Security - from Safeguarding Major Sporting Events to Law Enforcement to Tracking Wildfires
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 527. / : Edited by Jeffrey T. Richelson.
Washington, D.C., August 24, 2015. - "FBI spy plane zeroes in on Dearborn area" was the headline in The Detroit News on August 5, 2015. The story, which broke the news that the FBI had conducted at least seven surveillance flights recently over downtown Detroit, also raised a broader issue. It illustrated the fact that along with the controversy concerning electronic surveillance activities focused on telephone and e-mail records of United States citizens there exists a corresponding source of controversy - the use of satellites and assorted aircraft (manned and unmanned) to collect imagery and conduct aerial surveillance of civilian targets within the United States.
Today, the National Security Archive posts over forty documents, many appearing online for the first time, related to the domestic use of overhead imagery and the controversy it has generated. Among those documents are:
- Annual activity reports of the Civil Applications Committee, created in 1975 to provide a forum for interaction between the Intelligence Community and civil agencies wanting information from "national systems" (Document 2, Document 4, Document 6, Document 13, Document 16).
- Articles from a classified National Reconnaissance Office magazine discussing the use of NRO imagery spacecraft to aid in disaster relief (Document 9, Document 10, Document 23).
- Articles from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's Pathfinder magazine, which describe how the NGA uses overhead imagery to provide data to assorted agencies with responsibilities in security operations and planning for National Special Security Events (Document 12, Documents 20a, 20b, 20c, Document 26).
- Examples of imagery, obtained by the KH-9 spy camera, of two targets in New York - the World Trade Center and Shea Stadium (Document 29).
- Detailed NGA, NORTHCOM, and Air Combat Command internal regulations governing the collection, dissemination and use of domestic imagery (Document 17, Document 19, Document 34).
- A description and assessments of the Customs and Border Protection service's use of drones (Document 24, Document 30, Document 35, Document 37).
Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans Book III. Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities United States Senate April 23 (under authority of the order of April 14), 1976.
The Evolution of American Military Intelligence by Marc B. Powe and Edward Wilson, U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School, Fort Huachuca, AZ, May 1973.
Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, US Senate: Army Surveillance of Civilians:
A Documentary Analysis. 1972, 92d Congress, 2d session, 1972.

Send kommentar, email eller søg i
Locations of visitors to this page