USA, sociale forhold / social
- Geografi ; natur
; klima ; demografi ;
historie ; ophørte fredsbevægelser ; ophørte politiske partier ; ophørte sociale bevægelser ;
krige ; kultur ;
biblioteker ; kunst ; film; musik ; musikorganisationer ;
folkemusik ; jazz ;
pop ; rock ;
musiklitteratur ; politik:
indenrigspolitik ; udenrigspolitik ; præsidenter ;
regering ; lovgivende forsamling ; valg ; militær ;
efterretningstjenester ; aktuelle politiske
partier 2010 ; aktuelle
religion ; aktuelle sociale
bevægelser ; uddannelse ; universiteter ;
økonomi ; våbenhandel.
Sociale forhold i USA, herunder
arbejdsløshed, forbrug og skat: Alternative data bl.a. :
Economic Policy Institute.
- Social issues, including unemployment, consumption and tax:
Alternative data including : Economic Policy Institute.
- Les questions sociales, notamment le chômage, la
consommation et l'impôt: données alternatifs, y
compris: Economic Policy Institute.
- Los temas sociales, como el desempleo, el consumo y el
Los datos alternativos que incluyen: Instituto de Política
- Soziale Fragen, einschließlich der Arbeitslosigkeit,
Konsum und Steuern: Alternative Daten einschließlich:
Economic Policy Institute.
- CRS: Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response. / :
Jon O. Shimabukuro. 2014.
CRS: Child Support: An Overview of Census Bureau Data on
Recipients. /: Carmen Solomon-Fears, 2013.
'The national Census Bureau data show that in 2011, 14.4 million
parents had custody of children under age 21 while the other parent
lived elsewhere, and the aggregate amount of child support received
was $23.6 billion. In 2011, 82% of custodial parents were mothers.
Of all custodial parents, 50% were white, 25% were black, 21% were
Hispanic, 18% were married, 33% were divorced, 35% were never
married, 15% did not have a high school diploma, 17% had at least a
bachelor’s degree, 50% worked full-time year-round, 29% had
family income below poverty, and 39% received some type of public
assistance. In 2011, only 2.7 million (38%) of the nearly 7.1
million custodial parents with child support orders actually
received the full amount of child support that was owed to them.
The average yearly child support payment received by custodial
parents with payments was $5,160 for mothers and $4,433 for
fathers. These full or partial payments represented 17% of the
custodial mothers’ total yearly income and 11% of the
custodial fathers’. Compared to 1993 Census data, less child
support was received by custodial parents in 2011 ($23.9 billion in
1993 versus $23.6 billion in 2011; in 2011 dollars). However, a
higher percentage of those owed child support actually received all
that they were due (36.9% in 1993 versus 43.4% in 2011).'
CRS: Social Security Reform: Current Issues and Legislation. / :
Dawn Nuschler. November 28, 2012. - 40 s.
'Social Security reform has been an area of interest to
policymakers for many years. In 2011, Social Security program
changes were discussed during negotiations on legislation to
increase the federal debt limit and reduce federal budget deficits.
In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25)
established a Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction tasked
with recommending ways to reduce the deficit by at least $1.5
trillion over the fiscal year period 2012 to 2021. Social Security
program changes were among the measures discussed by the Joint
Committee. The Joint Committee, however, did not reach agreement on
a legislative proposal by the November 23, 2011, statutory
deadline. Currently, Social Security program changes may be
considered as part of a deficit reduction package under negotiation
Voksende indkomstulighed blandt amerikanere.
CRS: The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and
International Comparisons. / : Linda Levine, November 29, 2012. -
CRS: Job Growth During the Recovery. /
: Linda Levine, Specialist in Labor Economics. October 16, 2012. -
'A “jobless recovery” prevailed across firms in the
private nonfarm sector until March 2010. That is to say, the number
of private-sector jobs generally continued to fall until nine
months into the recovery. The recovery was jobless until October
2010, 16 months into the recovery, across all employers in the
public and private sectors of the nonfarm economy. At that point,
net job growth in the overall economy began not because
public-sector employment started to rise but because it fell more
slowly while private-sector employment continued to grow. Given the
pace of job growth during the recovery, a few more years will
likely elapse before the approximately 7.5 million jobs lost during
the recession are recouped.
The oldest and youngest workers have fared quite differently since
December 2007. Workers aged 55 and older experienced job growth
during the recession and recovery. The youngest age group (16- to
19-year olds) experienced the largest percentage declines in
employment during the recession and recovery.
The employment of Hispanic workers returned fairly quickly to its
level at the recession’s start, despite the ethnic
group’s concentration in the hard-hit construction industry.
Hispanic employment also is concentrated in the leisure and
hospitality industry group, which had recouped all its job losses
by early 2012.
The lower a worker’s educational attainment, the worse they
typically fared. As of September 2012, workers with less than 12
years of schooling or with a high school diploma at most did not
regain all the jobs they lost since the recession’s onset. In
contrast, employment among workers with postsecondary education was
higher in September 2012 than in December 2007'.
CRS: Poverty in the United States:
2011. / : Thomas Gabe. 2012 - 41 s.
'In 2011, 46.2 million people were counted as poor in the United
States, the same number as in 2010 and the largest number of
persons counted as poor in the measure’s 53-year recorded
history. The 2011 poverty rate of 15.0% is well above its most
recent pre-recession low of 12.3% in 2006, and has reached the
highest level seen in the past 18 years (1993). Moreover, poverty
as it is currently measured only counts families’ and
individuals’ pre-tax money income against the poverty line in
determining whether or not they are poor. In-kind benefits, such as
benefits under the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP,
formerly named the Food Stamp program) and housing assistance are
not accounted for under the “official” poverty
definition, nor are the effects of taxes or tax credits, such as
the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) or Child Tax Credit (CTC).'
Appendix. U.S. Poverty Statistics: 1959-2011
CRS: An Analysis of the Distribution of Wealth
Across Households, 1989-2010. / : Linda Levine. 2012. - 11 s.
'According to data from the Federal Reserve’s latest Survey
of Consumer Finances (SCF), mean household net worth was $498,800
and median household net worth was $77,300 in 2010.The median is
the value at which one-half of wealth-owners have lower values and
one-half have higher values of wealth. It is a better indication of
the wealth of the “typical” household than is the mean
which, because of the way in which it is calculated, is greatly
affected by the small number of households with high values of
wealth. A mean over six times a median suggests substantial
concentration of wealth among households at the upper end of the
wealth distribution'. /
Ifølge data fra Nationalbankens seneste undersøgelse
af forbrugernes økonomi, er husstand nettoformue $ 498,800
og medianen husstand nettoformue er $ 77,300 i 2010. Medianen den
værdi, hvortil halvdelen af formue-ejere har lavere
værdier og halvdelen har højere værdier af
velstand. Det er en bedre indikation af den "typiske" husstand,
rigdom end middelværdien, som på grund af den
måde, hvorpå den er beregnet, i høj grad
påvirkes af det lille antal af husstande med høje
værdier af rigdom. En middelværdi over seks gange en
median antyder betydelig koncentration af rigdom hos husstande i
den øvre ende af rigdomsdistributionen'.
Tax: 'Inflation-adjusted average after-tax income grew by 25%
between 1996 and 2006 (the last year for which individual income
tax data is publicly available). This average increase, however,
obscures a great deal of variation. The poorest 20% of tax filers
experienced a 6% reduction in income while the top 0.1% of tax
filers saw their income almost double. Tax filers in the middle of
the income distribution experienced about a 10% increase in income.
Also during this period, the proportion of income from capital
increased for the top 0.1% from 64% to 70%. Income inequality, as
measured by the Gini coefficient, increased between 1996 and 2006.
Changes in the Distribution of Income: Among
Tax Filers Between 1996 and 2006: The Role of Labor Income, Capital
Income, and Tax Policy. / Thomas L. Hungerford. CRS. 2011. - 22 pp.
Inflation, Money Supply, GDP, Unemployment and the Dollar -
Alternate Data Series.
Shadow Government Statistics, American Business Analytics &
The U.S. Census Bureau: Income, Poverty and Health Insurance
Coverage in the United States: 2010.
poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich
Innocenti Report Card 7, 2007, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre,
CRS: Unemployment: Issues in the
112th Congress. / : Jane G. Gravelle et al. 18 s.
'The longest and deepest recession since the Great Depression ended
and an expansion began in June 2009. Although output started
growing in the third quarter of 2009, the labor market was weak in
2010, with the unemployment rate averaging 9.6% for the year.
Despite showing greater improvement toward the end of 2011, the
unemployment rate averaged a still high 8.9% for the year. The
labor market has continued to slowly strengthen in 2012, with the
unemployment rate in September measuring 7.8%—the first time
it has been below 8% since January 2009'.
- CRS: The Emergency Food and Shelter
National Board Program and Homeless Assistance. / : Francis X.
McCarthy. October 5, 2012.. - 24 s.
'The Emergency Food and Shelter National Board (EFS) Program
provides supplemental funding to homeless services providers across
the nation. EFS was first authorized by P.L. 100-77, the Stewart B.
McKinney-Bruce Vento Homeless Assistance Act (Title III,
McKinney-Vento Act), which became law in 1987. Eligible services
include the provision of overnight shelter and served meals,
assistance to food banks and pantries, one month’s rental or
mortgage assistance to prevent evictions, and one month’s
utility payments to prevent service cut-offs.
Since its inception, the program’s recipient organizations
have provided over 2 billion meals, 241 million nights of shelter,
4.3 million rent and mortgage payments, and 5.9 million utility
payments. The program is administered by the EFS National Board,
which is chaired by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and is comprised of
representatives from the American Red Cross, Catholic Charities
USA, the National Council of Churches, the Salvation Army, United
Jewish Communities of North America, and United Way Worldwide'.
The US Misery Index: The US Unemployment Rate, January 1948 to June
Elendighedsindekset blev iværksat af økonomen Arthur
Okun, der var rådgiver for præsident Lyndon Johnson i
1960'erne. Det er simpelthen ledigheden føjet til
inflationen. Det antages, at både en højere
arbejdsløshed og en forværring af inflationen skaber
et lands økonomiske og sociale omkostninger. -
CRS: Unemployment Insurance:
Programs and Benefits. / : Julie M. Whittaker ; Katelin P.
Isaacs. 2012. - 32 s.
'Various benefits may be available to unemployed workers to provide
income support. When eligible workers lose their jobs, the
Unemployment Compensation (UC) program may provide up to 26 weeks
of income support through the payment of regular UC benefits.
Unemployment benefits may be extended for up to 47 weeks by the
temporarily authorized Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08)
program. Unemployment benefits may be extended for up to a further
13 or 20 weeks by the permanent Extended Benefit (EB) program under
certain state economic conditions. Certain groups of workers who
lose their jobs because of international competition may qualify
for income support through Trade Adjustment Act (TAA) programs.
Unemployed workers may be eligible to receive Disaster Unemployment
Assistance (DUA) benefits if they are not eligible for regular UC
and if their unemployment may be directly attributed to a declared
major disaster. Former U.S. military servicemembers may be eligible
for unemployment benefits through the unemployment compensation for
ex-servicemembers (UCX) program'. Burcharth, Martin: USA ramt af
langvarig ledighed : Mens den officielle arbejdsløshed
ligger urokkeligt fast omkring ni pct., er skaren af
underbeskæftigede folk uden for statistikken eller i
underbetalte deltidsjob vokset til 11,5 mio. I alt 26 mio.
amerikanere står uden fast job. I: Information,
- CRS: Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues. / Alison M.
Smith. 2012. - 35 s.
'The recognition of same-sex marriages generates debate on both the
federal and state levels. Either legislatively or judicially,
same-sex marriage is legal in seven states. Other states allow
civil unions or domestic partnerships, which grant all or part of
state-level rights, benefits, and/or responsibilities of marriage.
Some states have statutes or constitutional amendments limiting
marriage to one man and one woman. These variations raise questions
about the validity of such unions outside the contracted
jurisdiction and have bearing on the distribution of federal
benefits. The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), P.L. 104-199,
prohibits federal recognition of same-sex marriages and allows
individual states to refuse to recognize such marriages performed
in other states. Section 3 of DOMA requires that marriage, for
purposes of federal benefit programs, be defined as the union of
one man and one woman. Lower courts are starting to address
- CRS: Medicare Primer. / : Patricia A. Davis et al.
January 31, 2013. - 37 s.
'Medicare is a federal program that pays for covered health care
services of qualified beneficiaries. It was established in 1965
under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide health
insurance to individuals 65 and older, and has been expanded over
the years to include permanently disabled individuals under 65.
Medicare, which consists of four parts (A-D), covers
hospitalizations, physician services, prescription drugs, skilled
nursing facility care, home health visits, and hospice care, among
Generally, individuals are eligible for Medicare if they or their
spouse worked for at least 40 quarters in Medicare-covered
employment, are 65 years old, and are a citizen or permanent
resident of the United States. Individuals may also qualify for
coverage if they are a younger person with a permanent disability,
have End-Stage Renal disease (permanent kidney failure requiring
dialysis or transplant), or have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease). The program is administered by
the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and by
private entities that contract with CMS to provide claims
processing, auditing, and quality oversight services.'
- Se også USA: Demografi ; militær ; uddannelse ;
eller søg i Fredsakademiet.dk