USA, sociale forhold / social issues

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Sociale forhold i USA, herunder arbejdsløshed, forbrug og skat: Alternative data bl.a. : Economic Policy Institute.

Social issues, including unemployment, consumption and tax:
Alternative data including : Economic Policy Institute.
Les questions sociales, notamment le chômage, la consommation et l'impôt: données alternatifs, y compris: Economic Policy Institute.
Los temas sociales, como el desempleo, el consumo y el impuesto:
Los datos alternativos que incluyen: Instituto de Política Económica.
Soziale Fragen, einschließlich der Arbeitslosigkeit, Konsum und Steuern: Alternative Daten einschließlich: Economic Policy Institute.


CRS: Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response. / : Jon O. Shimabukuro. 2014.
CRS: Child Support: An Overview of Census Bureau Data on Recipients. /: Carmen Solomon-Fears, 2013.
'The national Census Bureau data show that in 2011, 14.4 million parents had custody of children under age 21 while the other parent lived elsewhere, and the aggregate amount of child support received was $23.6 billion. In 2011, 82% of custodial parents were mothers. Of all custodial parents, 50% were white, 25% were black, 21% were Hispanic, 18% were married, 33% were divorced, 35% were never married, 15% did not have a high school diploma, 17% had at least a bachelor’s degree, 50% worked full-time year-round, 29% had family income below poverty, and 39% received some type of public assistance. In 2011, only 2.7 million (38%) of the nearly 7.1 million custodial parents with child support orders actually received the full amount of child support that was owed to them. The average yearly child support payment received by custodial parents with payments was $5,160 for mothers and $4,433 for fathers. These full or partial payments represented 17% of the custodial mothers’ total yearly income and 11% of the custodial fathers’. Compared to 1993 Census data, less child support was received by custodial parents in 2011 ($23.9 billion in 1993 versus $23.6 billion in 2011; in 2011 dollars). However, a higher percentage of those owed child support actually received all that they were due (36.9% in 1993 versus 43.4% in 2011).'
CRS: Social Security Reform: Current Issues and Legislation. / : Dawn Nuschler. November 28, 2012. - 40 s.
'Social Security reform has been an area of interest to policymakers for many years. In 2011, Social Security program changes were discussed during negotiations on legislation to increase the federal debt limit and reduce federal budget deficits. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25) established a Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction tasked with recommending ways to reduce the deficit by at least $1.5 trillion over the fiscal year period 2012 to 2021. Social Security program changes were among the measures discussed by the Joint Committee. The Joint Committee, however, did not reach agreement on a legislative proposal by the November 23, 2011, statutory deadline. Currently, Social Security program changes may be considered as part of a deficit reduction package under negotiation by policymakers.'
Voksende indkomstulighed blandt amerikanere.
CRS: The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons. / : Linda Levine, November 29, 2012. - 22 s.
CRS: Job Growth During the Recovery. / : Linda Levine, Specialist in Labor Economics. October 16, 2012. - 15 s.
'A “jobless recovery” prevailed across firms in the private nonfarm sector until March 2010. That is to say, the number of private-sector jobs generally continued to fall until nine months into the recovery. The recovery was jobless until October 2010, 16 months into the recovery, across all employers in the public and private sectors of the nonfarm economy. At that point, net job growth in the overall economy began not because public-sector employment started to rise but because it fell more slowly while private-sector employment continued to grow. Given the pace of job growth during the recovery, a few more years will likely elapse before the approximately 7.5 million jobs lost during the recession are recouped.
The oldest and youngest workers have fared quite differently since December 2007. Workers aged 55 and older experienced job growth during the recession and recovery. The youngest age group (16- to 19-year olds) experienced the largest percentage declines in employment during the recession and recovery.
The employment of Hispanic workers returned fairly quickly to its level at the recession’s start, despite the ethnic group’s concentration in the hard-hit construction industry. Hispanic employment also is concentrated in the leisure and hospitality industry group, which had recouped all its job losses by early 2012.
The lower a worker’s educational attainment, the worse they typically fared. As of September 2012, workers with less than 12 years of schooling or with a high school diploma at most did not regain all the jobs they lost since the recession’s onset. In contrast, employment among workers with postsecondary education was higher in September 2012 than in December 2007'.
CRS: Poverty in the United States: 2011. / : Thomas Gabe. 2012 - 41 s.
'In 2011, 46.2 million people were counted as poor in the United States, the same number as in 2010 and the largest number of persons counted as poor in the measure’s 53-year recorded history. The 2011 poverty rate of 15.0% is well above its most recent pre-recession low of 12.3% in 2006, and has reached the highest level seen in the past 18 years (1993). Moreover, poverty as it is currently measured only counts families’ and individuals’ pre-tax money income against the poverty line in determining whether or not they are poor. In-kind benefits, such as benefits under the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly named the Food Stamp program) and housing assistance are not accounted for under the “official” poverty definition, nor are the effects of taxes or tax credits, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) or Child Tax Credit (CTC).'
Appendix. U.S. Poverty Statistics: 1959-2011
CRS: An Analysis of the Distribution of Wealth Across Households, 1989-2010. / : Linda Levine. 2012. - 11 s.
'According to data from the Federal Reserve’s latest Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), mean household net worth was $498,800 and median household net worth was $77,300 in 2010.The median is the value at which one-half of wealth-owners have lower values and one-half have higher values of wealth. It is a better indication of the wealth of the “typical” household than is the mean which, because of the way in which it is calculated, is greatly affected by the small number of households with high values of wealth. A mean over six times a median suggests substantial concentration of wealth among households at the upper end of the wealth distribution'. /
Ifølge data fra Nationalbankens seneste undersøgelse af forbrugernes økonomi, er husstand nettoformue $ 498,800 og medianen husstand nettoformue er $ 77,300 i 2010. Medianen den værdi, hvortil halvdelen af formue-ejere har lavere værdier og halvdelen har højere værdier af velstand. Det er en bedre indikation af den "typiske" husstand, rigdom end middelværdien, som på grund af den måde, hvorpå den er beregnet, i høj grad påvirkes af det lille antal af husstande med høje værdier af rigdom. En middelværdi over seks gange en median antyder betydelig koncentration af rigdom hos husstande i den øvre ende af rigdomsdistributionen'.
Tax: 'Inflation-adjusted average after-tax income grew by 25% between 1996 and 2006 (the last year for which individual income tax data is publicly available). This average increase, however, obscures a great deal of variation. The poorest 20% of tax filers experienced a 6% reduction in income while the top 0.1% of tax filers saw their income almost double. Tax filers in the middle of the income distribution experienced about a 10% increase in income. Also during this period, the proportion of income from capital increased for the top 0.1% from 64% to 70%. Income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, increased between 1996 and 2006. '
Changes in the Distribution of Income: Among Tax Filers Between 1996 and 2006: The Role of Labor Income, Capital Income, and Tax Policy. / Thomas L. Hungerford. CRS. 2011. - 22 pp.
Inflation, Money Supply, GDP, Unemployment and the Dollar - Alternate Data Series.
Shadow Government Statistics, American Business Analytics & Research LLC
The U.S. Census Bureau: Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010.
UNICEF: Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries.
Innocenti Report Card 7, 2007, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence
CRS: Unemployment: Issues in the 112th Congress. / : Jane G. Gravelle et al. 18 s.
'The longest and deepest recession since the Great Depression ended and an expansion began in June 2009. Although output started growing in the third quarter of 2009, the labor market was weak in 2010, with the unemployment rate averaging 9.6% for the year. Despite showing greater improvement toward the end of 2011, the unemployment rate averaged a still high 8.9% for the year. The labor market has continued to slowly strengthen in 2012, with the unemployment rate in September measuring 7.8%—the first time it has been below 8% since January 2009'.
CRS: The Emergency Food and Shelter National Board Program and Homeless Assistance. / : Francis X. McCarthy. October 5, 2012.. - 24 s.
'The Emergency Food and Shelter National Board (EFS) Program provides supplemental funding to homeless services providers across the nation. EFS was first authorized by P.L. 100-77, the Stewart B. McKinney-Bruce Vento Homeless Assistance Act (Title III, McKinney-Vento Act), which became law in 1987. Eligible services include the provision of overnight shelter and served meals, assistance to food banks and pantries, one month’s rental or mortgage assistance to prevent evictions, and one month’s utility payments to prevent service cut-offs.
Since its inception, the program’s recipient organizations have provided over 2 billion meals, 241 million nights of shelter, 4.3 million rent and mortgage payments, and 5.9 million utility payments. The program is administered by the EFS National Board, which is chaired by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and is comprised of representatives from the American Red Cross, Catholic Charities USA, the National Council of Churches, the Salvation Army, United Jewish Communities of North America, and United Way Worldwide'.
The US Misery Index: The US Unemployment Rate, January 1948 to June 2011
Elendighedsindekset blev iværksat af økonomen Arthur Okun, der var rådgiver for præsident Lyndon Johnson i 1960'erne. Det er simpelthen ledigheden føjet til inflationen. Det antages, at både en højere arbejdsløshed og en forværring af inflationen skaber et lands økonomiske og sociale omkostninger. -
CRS: Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits. / : Julie M. Whittaker ; Katelin P. Isaacs. 2012. - 32 s.
'Various benefits may be available to unemployed workers to provide income support. When eligible workers lose their jobs, the Unemployment Compensation (UC) program may provide up to 26 weeks of income support through the payment of regular UC benefits. Unemployment benefits may be extended for up to 47 weeks by the temporarily authorized Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program. Unemployment benefits may be extended for up to a further 13 or 20 weeks by the permanent Extended Benefit (EB) program under certain state economic conditions. Certain groups of workers who lose their jobs because of international competition may qualify for income support through Trade Adjustment Act (TAA) programs. Unemployed workers may be eligible to receive Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits if they are not eligible for regular UC and if their unemployment may be directly attributed to a declared major disaster. Former U.S. military servicemembers may be eligible for unemployment benefits through the unemployment compensation for ex-servicemembers (UCX) program'. Burcharth, Martin: USA ramt af langvarig ledighed : Mens den officielle arbejdsløshed ligger urokkeligt fast omkring ni pct., er skaren af underbeskæftigede folk uden for statistikken eller i underbetalte deltidsjob vokset til 11,5 mio. I alt 26 mio. amerikanere står uden fast job. I: Information, 08/25/2011
CRS: Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues. / Alison M. Smith. 2012. - 35 s.
'The recognition of same-sex marriages generates debate on both the federal and state levels. Either legislatively or judicially, same-sex marriage is legal in seven states. Other states allow civil unions or domestic partnerships, which grant all or part of state-level rights, benefits, and/or responsibilities of marriage. Some states have statutes or constitutional amendments limiting marriage to one man and one woman. These variations raise questions about the validity of such unions outside the contracted jurisdiction and have bearing on the distribution of federal benefits. The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), P.L. 104-199, prohibits federal recognition of same-sex marriages and allows individual states to refuse to recognize such marriages performed in other states. Section 3 of DOMA requires that marriage, for purposes of federal benefit programs, be defined as the union of one man and one woman. Lower courts are starting to address DOMA’s constitutionality'...
CRS: Medicare Primer. / : Patricia A. Davis et al. January 31, 2013. - 37 s.
'Medicare is a federal program that pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries. It was established in 1965 under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide health insurance to individuals 65 and older, and has been expanded over the years to include permanently disabled individuals under 65. Medicare, which consists of four parts (A-D), covers hospitalizations, physician services, prescription drugs, skilled nursing facility care, home health visits, and hospice care, among other services.
Generally, individuals are eligible for Medicare if they or their spouse worked for at least 40 quarters in Medicare-covered employment, are 65 years old, and are a citizen or permanent resident of the United States. Individuals may also qualify for coverage if they are a younger person with a permanent disability, have End-Stage Renal disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplant), or have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease). The program is administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and by private entities that contract with CMS to provide claims processing, auditing, and quality oversight services.'
Se også USA: Demografi ; militær ; uddannelse ; økonomi.

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