Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; krige ; kultur ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education , Economics and Arms trade.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Kasakhstans historie:

Oldtiden / Antiquity.
Palæontologi / Megafauna.
Stenalderen / Stone Age.
Astronomi kulturarv og arkæoastronomi.
Bronzealderen / Bronze Age.
Helleristninger / Petroglyph.
Jernalderen / Iron Age.
Kasakhstan var en del af Seljuk Sultanatet 1037-1194.
Senere var Kasakhstan en del af Kokand-khanatet 1709-1876. persisk: خانات خوقند;
Kasakhstan var den del af Sovjetunionen, hvori de sovietiske atomvåbenforsøg ved Semipalatinsk foregik under den kolde krig, og hvor der i dag er omfattende radioaktiv forurening. Der var sovietiske atomvåben i Kasakhstan.
The National Nuclear Center (NNC) of the Republic of Kazakhstan har bl.a. til opgave at forske i, hvordan miljøproblemerne i forbindelse med atomvåbenforsøgene løses.
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: Semipalatinsk: 60 years later
Project Sapphire 20th Anniversary.
More than a half-ton of weapons-grade uranium removed from Kazakhstan in 1994.
Secret mission was first major success of Nunn-Lugar program, Landmark for U.S.-Kazakhstan cooperation against nuclear proliferation. Declassified documents include after-action report, analysis of HEU samples, Video of C-5 landings in Ust-Kamenogorsk, photographs of uranium. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 491. Posted November 17, 2014. Edited by David E. Hoffman, Svetlana Savranskaya, and Thomas Blanton.
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 528. / : Edited by Tom Blanton and Svetlana Savranskaya
Washington D.C., August 29, 2015 - Today's anniversary of the historic closing in 1991 of the Soviet Union's nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk has brought new public attention to more than 20 years of U.S., Russian and Kazakh cooperation to remove and clean up after nuclear weapons - the subject of a landmark conference earlier this summer organized by the National Security Archive.
In May 1992 meetings with then-U.S. president George H.W. Bush, the president of the newly independent former Soviet republic, Nursultan Nazarbayev, had committed Kazakhstan to a non-nuclear future and the removal of more than 1,000 former Soviet nuclear warheads still on Kazakh territory. Earlier, in August 1991, Nazarbayev (then the head of the Kazakh Communist Party) had decreed the closure of the Semipalatinsk test site, thus signaling his agreement with the popular Nevada-Semey movement that protested the human and environmental damage from decades of nuclear tests.
The close cooperation of the Russian military, together with funding from the visionary (but underappreciated) Nunn-Lugar program in the U.S., successfully removed all the Soviet-era warheads from Kazakhstan by 1995. Subsequently, Nunn-Lugar funding also underwrote nearly two decades of scientific cooperation involving Russian and American institutes together with the Kazakh National Nuclear Center to clean up and secure hundreds of radioactive underground sites of test explosions in multiple locations in the "Polygon" (the test site nickname after its shape on the map).
Kazakhstan has since become a global leader for non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, noted for its playing prominent roles at the most recent Nuclear Security Summits, its plan to host the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) low-enriched-uranium fuel bank (with support from Sam Nunn's Nuclear Threat Initiative), and the new home in Astana for the International Science and Technical Center after Moscow pulled out of Nunn-Lugar programs in 2013. The IAEA and the Kazakh government formally signed the fuel bank agreement on August 27, 2015 in Astana with Senator Nunn present for the occasion. Nunn commented, "We are in a race between cooperation and catastrophe."
Veterans of the Kazakh success story gathered in Astana in early June for the second in the series of "critical oral history" conferences organized by the National Security Archive to illuminate the history of the Nunn-Lugar initiative and bring its lessons to bear on current and future proliferation challenges.

Se tillige: Afrikansk historie ; Historie fra Amerika ; Asiens historie ; Historie fra Europa ; Historie fra Oceanien (inkl. Australien og New Zealand)
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UNESCO: History of Civilizations of Central Asia I-VI.
Volume I: The Dawn of Civilization: Earliest Times to 700 B.C., eds. A. H. Dani and V. M. Masson (Paris, 1992).
Volume 1 of this UNESCO multi-volume series traces the history of man in this vast region from the Palaeolithic beginnings to circa 700 BC, when the foundations of the Achaemenian Empire were laid. The earliest history of man is evidenced and the food producing areas of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Indus Valley explored. The Bronze Age and the first signs of urbanization from the Indus to the Oxus are described as is the development of the nomadic pastoral tribes, such as the Aryans, whose history can be seen in proper perspective through archaeological evidence now available
Volume II: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250, ed. János Harmatta, co-eds. B. N. Puri and G. F. Etemadi (Paris, 1994).
Volume III: The Crossroads of Civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, ed. B. A. Litvinsky, coeds. Zhang Guang-da and R. Shabani Samghabadi (Paris, 1996).
Volume IV: The Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, 2 vols., eds. M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth (Part One, Paris, 1998; Part Two, Paris, 2000).
- Charles C. Kolb. Review of Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, C. E., eds., History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. H-Asia, H-Net Reviews. October, 1998.
Volume V: Development in Contrast: From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, eds. Chahryar Adle and Irfan Habib, co-ed. Karl M. Baipakov (Paris, 2003).
Volume VI: Towards the Contemporary Period: From the Mid-Nineteenth to the End of the Twentieth Century, co-eds. Madhavan K. Palat and Anara Tabyshalieva (Paris, 2005).

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