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Indian nuclear weapons
- Indien er siden den kolde krigs
tid, fra 1974 og 1998, medlem af
Atomvåbenuheld. Alle oplysninger om indiske
atomvåben er hemmelige og eller maskerede.
- India has since the Cold War, between 1974 and 1998, been a
member of the nuclear club. Nuclear weapons accidents. All
information about Indian nuclear weapons are secret and or
- Militærforskning og
/ Military Research and Development
/ Recherche et développement militaire
/ Investigación y Desarrollo Militar
/ Militärische Forschung und Entwicklung:
- CRS: Nuclear Weapons
R&D Organizations in Nine Countries. / : Jonathan Medalia
et al., 2013.
'United States, China, France, India, Israel, North Korea,
Pakistan, Russia and United Kingdom.'
- Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
- CRS: India's Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views. / :
Sharon Squassoni, 2006.
- India is building nuclear submarines and ICBMs. That’s a $14 billion mistake.
/ : Frank O’Donnell, Alexander K. Bollfrass. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, February 26, 2020.
- Indian nuclear forces, 2020. / : Hans M. Kristensen
& Matt Korda. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 76:4,
- India's Nuclear Triad: A Net Assessment. / : Ajey Lele and
- New Delhi : Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 2013.
; IDSA Occasional Paper No. 31)
- SIPRI: India
'India is estimated to have an arsenal of 90–110 nuclear
weapons. This figure is based on calculations of India's inventory
of weapon-grade plutonium and the number of operational
nuclear-capable delivery systems.
India's nuclear weapons are believed to be plutonium-based. As of
2015 India’s weapon-grade plutonium stockpile was estimated
to be between 0.57 and 0.61 tonnes The plutonium was produced at
the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) by the 40 megawatt-thermal
(MW(t)) heavy water CIRUS reactor, which was shut down at the end
of 2010, and the 100- MW(t) Dhruva heavy water reactor.
India has plans to build six fast breeder reactors, which will
significantly increase its capacity to produce plutonium for
weapons. A 500 megawatt-electric (MW(e)) prototype fast breeder
reactor (PFBR) is being built at the Indira Gandhi Centre for
Atomic Research (IGCAR) complex at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. It is
expected to achieve first criticality during 2015, to be followed
by an extended period of testing'
- Indian-built Arihant nuclear submarine activated
10 August 2013
'India has activated the reactor on board the INS Arihant nuclear
submarine, the first to be designed and built in India.'
atomvåbenforsøg: 1974 (Operation Smiling Buddha ;
Operation Happy Krishna, Pokhran-I) ; 1998.
- United Nationss Security Council Resolution 1172 (1998).
Adopted by the Security Council at its 3890th meeting, on 6 June
The Security Council [is], 'Gravely concerned at the challenge that
the nuclear tests conducted by India and then by Pakistan
constitute to international efforts aimed at strengthening the
global regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and also
gravely concerned at the danger to peace and stability in the
- International politik:
- Local Nuclear War, Worry has focused on the U.S. versus Russia,
but a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could blot
out the sun, starving much of the human race. / : Alan Robock and
Owen Brian Toon Scientific American, January 2010.
- U.S. Intelligence and the Indian Bomb : Documents Show
U.S. Intelligence Failed to Warn of India's Nuclear Tests Despite
Tracking Nuclear Weapons Potential Since 1950s. / : National
Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 187, 2006.
- On Yields of May 11, 1998
Indian explosions by network averaged teleseismic P-wave
spectra. / : S.K.Sikka.
Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to Government of India,
'Three underground nuclear explosions were detonated by India on 11
May, 1998. These were triggered simultaneously and comprised of a
thermonuclear device, a fission device and a subkiloton device in
spatially separated shafts. Initial estimates of the yields of
about 60 kt were derived from close in measurements and from
analysis of regional and teleseismic data. In 1998, Barker et al
, in a paper in Science, applied the technique of network
averaged teleseismic P-wave spectra from recordings from some
stations to show that the observed shape of the May 11, 1998 Indian
explosions (5/11/98, often referred to as POK-2 explosions) is
remarkably similar to that for the tests at the former Soviet
Semipalatinsk site and completely inconsistent with US Nevada test
- Pokharan-I: Personal Recollections. / : PR Chari.
Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
www.ipcs. ; IPCS Special Report 80, 2009)
- CRS: U.S. Nuclear
Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress. / : Paul K. Kerr,
'India, which has not signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
(NPT) and does not have International Atomic Energy Agency
safeguards on all nuclear material in peaceful nuclear activities,
exploded a "peaceful" nuclear device in 1974, convincing the world
of the need for greater restrictions on nuclear trade. The United
States created the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as a direct
response to India's test, halted nuclear exports to India a few
years later, and worked to convince other states to do the same.
India tested nuclear weapons again in 1998. However, President Bush
announced July 18, 2005, he would "work to achieve full civil
nuclear energy cooperation with India" and would "also seek
agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies," in the
context of a broader partnership with India.'
- Organization of Atomic
Energy in India, Bhabha. Date: April 26 1948 .
Source: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Papers,
IDSA-HBP-26041948. Obtained and contributed by A. Vinod Kumar and
the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Description: A
series of notes from Dr. Bhabha detailing important requirements
and recommendations for the development of India’s nuclear
- Historical Note on Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research.
Date:January 1 1954 Source: Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses (IDSA), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba
Papers, IDSA-HBP-01011954. Obtained and contributed by A. Vinod
Kumar and the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses.
Description: A historical note from Dr. Bhabha to the Prime
Minister chronicling the history of the establishment and
subsequent operation of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
Also includes information about the Institute’s
administrative functions and relations with the Atomic Energy
- India's Stocks of Civil and Military Plutonium and Highly
Enriched Uranium, End 2014. / : David Albright and Serena
- Se også: Aktuelle stater med atomvåben,
kernevåben: Frankrig, Indien,
Israel, Kina, Nordkorea,
Pakistan, Rusland, Storbritannien og USA.
- See also: Current states with nuclear weapons: France, India,
Israel, China, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, UK and USA.
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