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Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education , Economics and Arms trade.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Pakistans atomvåben
/ Pakistan's Nuclear

Pakistan er medlem af atomvåbenklubben. Atomvåbenuheld.
Militærforskning og -udvikling
/ Military Research and Development
/ Recherche et développement militaire
/ Investigación y Desarrollo Militar
/ Militärische Forschung und Entwicklung:
CRS: Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Countries. / : Jonathan Medalia et al., 2013.
'United States, China, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia and United Kingdom.'
International politik:
Local Nuclear War, Worry has focused on the U.S. versus Russia, but a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could blot out the sun, starving much of the human race. / : Alan Robock and Owen Brian Toon Scientific American, January 2010.
Se også: Aktuelle stater med atomvåben, kernevåben: Frankrig, Indien, Israel, Kina, Nordkorea, Pakistan, Rusland, Storbritannien og USA.
See also: Current states with nuclear weapons: France, India, Israel, China, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, UK and USA.


Hans M. Kristensen, Robert S. Norris & Julia Diamond (2018)
Pakistani nuclear forces, 2018, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74:5, 348-358,
DOI: 10.1080/00963402.2018.1507796
CRS: Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons. / : Paul K. Kerr ; Mary Beth Nikitin, 2016.
New Documents Spotlight Reagan-era Tensions over Early Pakistani Nuclear Program.
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 377, 2012
'This is the third in a series of Electronic Briefing Books on U.S. policy toward the Pakistani nuclear program. The first was on the Carter administration's policy; the second was on the efforts to work with allies to prevent the export of sensitive technology to Pakistan.'
The U.S. and the Pakistani Bomb, 1984-1985: General Zia, President Reagan, and Seymour Hersh
Declassified State Department Documents Disclose Internal U.S. Government Debate over Whether to Enforce "Red Lines" for Nuclear Activities in Pakistan, and Worries about an Indian "Pre-Emptive Strike"
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 531. / : Edited by William Burr.
Washington, D.C., 14 October 2015 - In July 1984, U.S. customs agents arrested a Pakistani national, Nazir Ahmed Vaid, at Houston International Airport for trying to purchase krytrons--useful for triggering nuclear weapons--and smuggle them out of the United States Some months later, Vaid was found guilty of violating export control laws, but a plea bargain produced a light penalty: deportation. Months later, journalist Seymour Hersh wrote a major article about the Vaid case for the New York Times and quoted a U.S. government official who said that the State Department had been "blase" about the case.
Declassified documents, published today by the National Security Archive for the first time, portray State Department officials on the defensive in their discussions with Hersh, denying his implication that the Department "had deliberately tried to soft-pedal" the case. Other officials were not so sure. Arch Turrentine, a senior official at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), conceded that State "may have been reluctant to push too hard ... for fear of upsetting US-Pakistani relations." According to Turrentine, "we should do better next time."
Today's posting thus explores important divisions within the U.S. government over Pakistani nuclear proliferation as it played out against the backdrop of the war in Afghanistan, exposing some difficult and controversial trade-offs in support of U.S. foreign policy interests. At the same time, the documents open a fascinating window into official attempts to manage outside scrutiny of a sensitive U.S. policy by one of America's hardest-hitting investigative reporters.

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