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Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, political parties, defense, Nuclear weapons, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, armes nucléaires; les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.

Israelske kernevåben

Israeli nuclear weapons

Staten Israel er siden den kolde krigs tid medlem af atomvåbenklubben. Atomvåbenuheld.
The State of Israel has since the Cold War, been a member of the nuclear weapons club. Nuclear weapons accidents.
Størsteparten af dokumentationen om de israelske atomvåben er offentliggjort af amerikanske arkiver fra den kolde krigs tid. At israelerne har atomvåben er først og fremmest dokumenteret af amerikanske efterretningstjenester. Historien om de israelske atomvåben starter i Norge og Argentina, hvorfra nogle af atomvåbenes grundbestanddele kom til Israel i aller største hemmelighed. Senere fortsætter historien i Sydafrika. Alle oplysninger om israelske atomvåben er hemmelige og eller maskerede.
Militærforskning og -udvikling
/ Military Research and Development
/ Recherche et développement militaire
/ Investigación y Desarrollo Militar
/ Militärische Forschung und Entwicklung:
CRS: Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Countries. / : Jonathan Medalia et al., 2013.
'United States, China, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia and United Kingdom.'
For the first time, Israeli Supreme Court will hear case regarding status of Atomic Energy Commission
Israeli Disamament Movement - press release. September 6, 2017.
Despite opposition by the state, the Supreme Court will hold a first of its kind hearing today (Wednesday) regarding the secret procedures governing the work of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission.
Following the appeal filed by attorney Itay Mack, representing 108 petitioners, the Supreme Court decided to hold a hearing by senior justices, headed by incoming chief justice Ester Hayut, MeniMaziz and Noam Solberg. The petitioners demand the establishment of legislation to regulate operations of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), its roles, authority, form of organization and management, and to require monitoring of its activities and facilities.
Though the IAEC was created in 1952, its roles and methods of monitoring its activities have never been enshrined in law. Instead they were established in a secret administrative order, issued by the then-Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, and later via a series of secret government rulings. The commission deals with a variety of topics concerning the health and safety of Israeli citizens, including nuclear safety, licensing of facilities and activities, treatment of nuclear waste, and serving as a governmental consultant for nuclear policy.
In a response submitted several months ago, the government demanded to reject the petition outright and without a hearing. Its claims were that the supreme court does not have the authority to order the prime minister to legislate, and that either way, the activities of the commission are anchored in procedures whose legality derives from the government’s residual authority to operate in any domain not enshrined in primary legislation.
In a precedent-setting decision, the supreme court rejected the government’s position and decided to hold a hearing for the petition. This is the first time in the history of the State of Israel that a court will exercise legal criticism over the Atomic Commission and its activities. During the hearing, the justices are expected to pore over the most highly classified regulations of the State of Israel, and determine whether they are satisfactory and allow the government to continue using them, or to accept the demand of the petitioners to establish legislation that will regulate operations and enable real oversight.
“From our perspectives, the fact that the supreme court will even hear this case is a victory,” said Sharon Dolev, Director of the Israeli Disarmament Movement. “We are dealing with dangerous facilities that operate without proper oversight and without legislation. We are hopeful that following the Supreme Court petition, whether we win or lose, we will finally have a real discussion about the nature of oversight on the Nuclear Commission and its facilities. This is not the end of the “kingdom of secrecy,” and Israel’s nuclear ambiguity will not be changed - but the safety of the citizens must be held in higher regard than the convenience of the state and the Commission.”
Before Dimona. Dimona Revealed.
A Special National Intelligence Estimate from 1974 confirmed Israel's nuclear weapons status.
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 240 Edited by William Burr and Jeffrey Richelson
Posted - January 14, 2008.
The Israel-Argentina Yellowcake Connection
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 432
Washington, D.C., June 25, 2013 -- During 1963-64, the Israeli government secretly acquired 80-100 tons of Argentine uranium oxide ("yellowcake") for its nuclear weapons program, according to U.S. and British archival documents published today for the first time jointly by the National Security Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, and the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. The U.S. government learned about the sale through Canadian intelligence and found out even more from its Embassy in Argentina. Washington was concerned that the yellowcake purchase cast doubts on Israel's claims about a peaceful nuclear program. In response to U.S. diplomatic queries about the sale, the government of Israel was evasive in its replies and gave no answers to the U.S.'s questions about the transaction.
The U.S. Discovery of Israel's Secret Nuclear Project
Israeli Cover Stories about the Dimona Reactor Dismayed Top Level Officials Who Saw a "Clearly Apparent Lack of Candor"
U.S. Embassy Telegram Quotes Ben-Gurion Aide That It Was a "Stupid Mistake" by Israel to Cloak the Nuclear Project in Secrecy
To Prevent Military Uses of the Facility, U.S. Officials Believed the International Atomic Energy Agency Should Monitor Dimona (It Never Has)
Today's Posting Inaugurates the National Security Archive's Special Web Site on Israeli Nuclear History
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 510
Avner Cohen and William Burr, editors
Concerned About Nuclear Weapons Potential, John F. Kennedy Pushed for Inspection of Israel Nuclear Facilities
Atomic Energy Commission Inspectors Gave Dimona a Clean Bill of Health – Twice – after Deliberately Truncated Tours, but U.S. Intelligence Remained Suspicious
International Atomic Energy Agency Inspection of Dimona Was “Our Objective,” According to State Department
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 547
Posted - April 21, 2016
President John F. Kennedy worried that Israel’s nuclear program was a potentially serious proliferation risk and insisted that Israel permit periodic inspections to mitigate the danger, according to declassified documents published today by the National Security Archive, Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, and the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Kennedy pressured the government of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to prevent a military nuclear program, particularly after stage-managed tours of the Dimona facility for U.S. government scientists in 1961 and 1962 raised suspicions within U.S. intelligence that Israel might be concealing its underlying nuclear aims. Kennedy’s long-run objective, documents show, was to broaden and institutionalize inspections of Dimona by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The Eisenhower Administration and the Discovery of Dimona: March 1958-January 1961
Washington, DC, Posted April 15, 2015 -- The U.S. government first learned of Israel's secret nuclear program at Dimona from an American corporate official talking to U.S. diplomats in Tel Aviv during mid-summer 1960, according to a declassified document published today for the first time by the National Security Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. Other documents published today detail the discovery of the secret project that some in the U.S. government believed from the very start aimed at a weapons capability; the U.S. debates over Israel's lack of candor; and U.S. government efforts to pressure the Israelis to answer key questions about the nature of the Dimona project.
This "discovery," which came as the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was drawing to a close, caused apprehension in Washington by raising concern about regional stability and nuclear proliferation, but it also produced annoyance because Israeli officials at all levels repeatedly provided less than credible answers to U.S. questions about Dimona. Thus, in September 1960, when embassy officials asked about a new construction site when they were on a helicopter ride nearby, an adroit Israeli official, Addy Cohen, improvised a story to keep the secret: it was the site of a textile factory, he said; a story that was not wholly false because there was a textile plant near Dimona. An interview with Addy Cohen detailing the episode appears in this posting for the first time.
Documents published in this collection shed light on a particularly notable intelligence failure: how Washington missed warning signs that the Israelis had a nuclear project underway, but also how the U.S. belatedly realized what the Israelis were doing, and how Eisenhower and his senior advisers reacted to this discovery. Among the documents are:
Many of the documents published today have been declassified for years but have not been collected and published comprehensively with the aim of shedding light on the Eisenhower administration's efforts to come to terms with the discovery of Dimona. This material is only the tip of the iceberg: many documents from this period are still classified in State Department records and in the files of the Atomic Energy Commission, although they are currently under request by the National Security Archive.
Today's posting marks the inauguration of the National Security Archive's special Web page on Israeli Nuclear History, edited by Avner Cohen. As a project of the Archive's Nuclear Vault, it will be the homepage for the Archive's postings relating to the Israeli nuclear program.
JFK vs. Israel's Bomb 1963
U.S. Intelligence: Dimona Plutonium = "One or Two Weapons Per Year"
Secret Clash Between Kennedy and Two Israeli Prime Ministers
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 671
Washington D.C., May 2, 2019 - Declassified documents published today by the National Security Archive illuminate President John F. Kennedy’s secret preoccupation with the Israeli nuclear program during 1963. Possibly more determined to check nuclear proliferation than any other U.S. president, Kennedy wanted U.S. experts to inspect Israel’s nuclear reactor site at Dimona to ensure that it was not being used for a weapons program. Through secret correspondence with Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and his successor Levi Eshkol Kennedy applied unprecedented pressure, informing both prime ministers that the U.S.’s “commitment to and support of Israel “could be “seriously jeopardized” if it could not obtain “reliable information” about the Dimona reactor and Israel’s nuclear intentions.
Surprised by the U.S.’s firm demands, Eshkol deliberated for seven weeks before he reluctantly assented. Kennedy did not live to see the inspection that took place in January 1964, but his demands on Israeli prime ministers initiated the inspection visits that continued through the 1960s, although they were not enough to deter Israel from getting the bomb.
The National Security Archive obtained the documents through declassification requests and research at the U.S. National Archives
The NUMEC Mystery: Was U.S. Highly Enriched Uranium Diverted to Israel’s Nuclear Weapons Program?
U.S. Officials in 1960s Believed Americans Had Cooperated with Israeli Intelligence
300 Kilos of Weapons-Grade Uranium Unaccounted For
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 565
Washington, D.C., November 2, 2016 – Senior U.S. officials in the 1960s believed that U.S. citizens cooperated with Israeli intelligence officials in assisting the Israeli nuclear weapons program, according to declassified U.S. government documents published today for the first time by the National Security Archive.
For decades there have been allegations and suspicions that foreign agents, perhaps aided by American citizens, diverted a significant amount of missing uranium from a firm called NUMEC in the small town of Apollo, Pennsylvania, to Israel. Because of the high stakes involved, the affair has been clouded in denial and concealment.
This Electronic Briefing Book provides the most revealing of the declassified documents that are currently available, including records from former CIA station chief (Tel Aviv) John Hadden, to try to illuminate part of the mystery of the Israeli nuclear weapons program.
Cohen, Avner: Israel and the Bomb.
Cohen, Avner : The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with the Bomb.
- New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. - ISBN 0-231-13698-6.
Hersh, Seymour M.: The Sampson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal & American Foreign Policy.
Se også: -
Israel Submarine Capabilities. The Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2015.
Israel opruster tyske ubåde med atomvåben. / : Michael Reiter, Berlin I: Ingeniøren 7. jun 2012 .
- 'Det tyske nyhedsmagasin Der Spiegel har afsløret, at Israel efter al sandsynlighed er ved at udstyre topmoderne ubåde med atomvåben. I Tyskland, hvor ubådene er købt, har afsløringen nedkaldt en storm af protester over Merkel-regeringen.'
Operation Samson: Israel's Deployment of Nuclear Missiles on Subs from Germany.
Se også: Aktuelle stater med atomvåben, kernevåben: Frankrig, Indien, Israel, Kina, Nordkorea, Pakistan, Rusland, Storbritannien og USA.
See also: Current states with nuclear weapons: France, India, Israel, China, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, UK and USA.

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