Guam, U.S. Territory of Guam

Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; politik ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía
Guam er siden 1898 en amerikansk ø og koloni i Mikronesien i det vestlige Stillehav.
Guam er aktuelt et Un-incorporated U.S. Territory eller et ikke-inkorporeret eller indarbejdet amerikansk territorium. Det er områder som styres direkte af den amerikanske regering. Disse områder er ud over Guam: Jomfruøerne, De nordlige Marianaøer, og Puerto Rico. Indbyggerne i disse territorier har ret til at stemme til Kongres og Senat m.m., men, indtil for nyligt, ikke ret til at deltage i det direkte præsidentvalg. Guam har historisk og aktuelt en strategisk vigtig geopolitisk position i forhold til USA's politik overfor Japan - ikke mindst i forhold til baserne i Okinawa, Kina, Nord- og Sydkorea.

Geografihistoriske primærkilder og fremstillinger /
Geography Historical primary sources and
presentations /
Géographie des sources historiques primaires:

Guam; Information on Guam Transmitted by the United States to the United Nations. / United States. Navy Dept.; United States. Dept. of the Interior. 1947. - 28 s.
History and description of our Philippine wonderland, and photographic panorama of Hawaii, Cuba, Porto Rico, Samoa, Guam, and Wake island, with entertaining accounts of their peoples and modes of living, customs, industries, climate and present conditions.. (1899).
Dampier, William: A new voyage round the world [microform] : describing particularly the isthmus of America, several coasts and islands in the West Indies, the Isles of Cape Verd, the passage by Terra del Fuego, the south sea coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico ; the Isle of Guam, one of the Ladrones, Mindanao, and other Philippine and East India islands near Cambodia, China, Formosa, Luconia, Celebes, &c., New Holland, Sumatra, Nicobar Isles ; the Cape of Good Hope, and Santa Hellena : their soil, rivers, harbours, plants, fruits, animals, and inhabitants : their customs, religion, government, trade, &c. I-II (1697). - 611+ ? s.
Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmos-pheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. I: Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 4. Friday, January 6, 2012 / Proposed Rules. s. 842-894.
Kalkstensskovene er de mest forskelligartede naturlige plante-samfund i Guam. / Limestone forests are the most diverse natural plant communities of Guam. Final Integrated Trip Report - Site Visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005. - 55 s.
Ecosystem Profile Polynesia-Micronesia Biodiversity Hotspot. / : James Atherton et al.
Conservation International-Melanesia Center for Biodiversity Conservation, 2007.
'The Polynesia-Micronesia Hotspot includes all the islands of Micronesia, tropical Polynesia, and Fiji. Included in this enormous expanse of ocean are more than 4,500 islands, representing 11 countries, eight territories and one U.S. state (Hawaii). Despite its large marine coverage, 2.6 times larger than the continental United States, it is one of the smallest hotspots in terms of terrestrial land area, covering only 46,315 square kilometers or about the size of Switzerland. The total population of the hotspot is approximately 3,235,250 but 65 percent of the population is found in Hawaii and Fiji. Not all countries and territories in the hotspot are eligible for CEPF funds; only countries that are World Bank members and signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity are eligible. Thus six countries and territories in the hotspot, including Nauru; the U.S. state of Hawaii; the U.S. territories of American Samoa and Guam; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Tuvalu are ineligible. While this ecosystem profile includes data and analysis from all 20 countries and territories in the hotspot, conservation outcomes and strategic directions only refer to the 14 eligible countries and territories'.
'Plant, bird, and invertebrate diversity in the hotspot are particularly high, but diversity of non-volant mammals, reptiles and amphibians is low. Overall the hotspot is home to approximately 5,330 native vascular plant species, of which 3,074 (57 percent) are endemic, 242 breeding native bird species of which approximately 164 (68 percent) are endemic, 61 native terrestrial reptiles, of which 30 (49 percent) are endemic, 15 native mammals, all bats, 11 (73 percent) of which are endemic, and three native amphibians, all endemic. Although there are no true native freshwater fish, at least 96 marine species are found as adults in freshwater and 20 species are endemic. Knowledge of invertebrate diversity is very patchy, but for many groups that have been studied, it is high. Land snail diversity is particularly high with over 750 species in Hawaii alone and perhaps 4,000 species in the insular tropical Pacific.'
Marshall Islands National Weather Service Office
The Pacific Region of the National Weather Service administers the programs and facilities of the NWS throughout a large expanse of the Pacific. This area includes the Islands of Hawaii, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Palau, and south to American Samoa.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center and the International Tsunami Information Center are also administered by the NWS Pacific Region, providing Pacific-basin tsunami watches, warnings, and information and educational services to the disaster preparedness community and the general public.
Geologi og jordbundsforhold: Bjerge, vulkaner, jordskælv og ørkenområder:
Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and desert areas
Géologie: Montagnes, volcans, tremblements de terre et les zones désertiques
Geología: Montañas, volcanes, terremotos y zonas desérticas
Geologie: Berge, Vulkane, Erdbeben und Wüstengebiete
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker.
Demografi: 2004 Guam Statistical Yearbook. Bureau of Statistics and Plans, 2005. - 457 s.
Historie: Guam var koloniseret af Spanien 1565-1898 og er siden koloniseret af USA. Under den første del af den kolde krig blev Guam ramt af radioaktivt nedfald fra de atmosfæriske atom-våbenforsøg i Stillehavet, ifølge: Assessment of the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program, National Research Council. Appendix C. 2005. Radioactivity in Guam After Nuclear-Weapons Testing in the Pacific: 'Atmospheric testing began in the Marshall Islands with Operation Crossroads in July 1946. Operation Ivy began in October 1952. On October 31, 1952, the first thermonuclear device, with the code name Mike, was detonated. A radiation-fallout monitoring program for Operation Ivy was established in 1952 and coordinated by the New York Operations Office of the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of a worldwide network of 111 monitoring stations with at least one in every continent, but it was concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. One of those monitoring stations was located in Guam. In addition to stationary ground-based monitoring, aerial surveys using low flying aircraft were conducted from several Air Force bases.'

A List of Books (with References to Periodicals) on Samoa and Guam. / Library of Congress Division of Bibliography. 1901. - 58 s.
Report of the island of Guam I-XXVIII. / United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division;
Forbes-Lindsay, C. H.: America's insular possessions (1906).

Deltagelse i krige
War in the Pacific National Historical Park : hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, Committee on Natural Resources, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on H.R. 1944, to provide for additional development at War in the Pacific National Historical Park ... hearing held in Washington, DC, May 27, 1993. / United States. Congress. House. Committee on Natural Resources. Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands (1993).
Last Flight From Saigon. / Edited by: Lt. Col. A. J. C. Lavalle. 1979. ; USAF Southeast Asia Monograph Series. Volume IV. Monograph 6).
Der er, og har været udstationeret amerikanske kernevåben på Guam siden Koreakrigen.
GAO: Subject: Military Buildup on Guam: Costs and Challenges in Meeting Construction Timelines, 2011.
'The military buildup on Guam is likely to cost about $7.5 billion in military construction funding from fiscal years 2009 through 2016, according to the latest estimates by DOD.'
U.S. nuclear forces, 2010: Two important recent events—the signing of New START and the release of the Obama administra-tion’s Nuclear Posture Review—will shape the configuration of the U.S. nuclear arsenal for years to come. / Robert S. Norris & Hans M. Kristensen.
I: Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2010. -
H.R.2910 - To amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to include the Territory of Guam in the list of affected areas with respect to which claims relating to atmospheric nuclear testing shall be allowed, and for other purposes.109th Congress (2005-2006).
3 Nuclear Storage Depots to Close as B-52 Missions Change. / : Richard Halloran, Special to the New York Times. May 16, 1988.
'The Air Force has notified Congressional leaders that it plans to close three depots where nuclear weapons are stored at air bases as some B-52 bombers are converted to carrying only conventional bombs. In letters to the lawmakers, the Air Force said nuclear storage depots would be closed at Andersen Air Force Base on Guam in the central Pacific Ocean, Loring Air Force Base in northern Maine and Mather Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA'.
How Do You Solve A Problem Like Korea? New Archive Document Collection Sheds Light on Nixon's Frustrating Search for Military Options. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 322 / Robert Wampler, PhD. Posted - June 23, 2010.
'Washington, D.C., June 23, 2010 - Four decades ago, in response to North Korean military provocations, the U.S. developed contingency plans that included selected use of tactical nuclear weapons against Pyongyang’s military facilities and the possibility of full-scale war, according to recently declassified documents. Astonishingly, casualty estimates ranged from a low of 100 or so civilian deaths, up to “several thousand.” Newly-elected President Richard Nixon and his key advisors, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger, Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird and JCS Chairman Earle Wheeler, considered a menu of possible military actions against North Korea, from carefully targeted attacks on North Korean military facilities, to a plan codenamed FREEDOM DROP for limited nuclear strikes (with surprisingly limited casualty expectations), to all-out war using nuclear weapons. The Pentagon drew up these plans as the result of North Korea’s downing of a U.S. reconnaissance plane over the Sea of Japan in April 1969 -- just one in a long set of military provocations by Pyongyang that continues to the present.'
Aktuelle og historiske politiske partier / Current and historical political parties
International organisering
Forsvar / militær: Guam har to amerikanske militærbaser: Apra Naval Base og Andersen Air Force Base.
CRS: Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments. / Shirley A. Kan. March 29, 2012. - 26 s.
Final Record of Decision for Sites 4, 11, 25, 28, and 34, Main Base Operable Unit, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, 2008. - 103 s.
GAO: Military Buildup on Guam: Costs and Challenges in Meeting Construction Timelines. 2011. - 32 s.
- 'The military buildup on Guam is likely to cost about $7.5 billion in military construction funding from fiscal years 2009 through 2016, according to the latest estimates by DOD. However, DOD has yet to fully identify some costs associated with the buildup. For example, DOD has not developed cost estimates for the air and missile defense task force that may be placed on Guam. In addition, construction for future facilities for the Air Force Guam Strike initiative is expected to occur over a 16-year period, which extends beyond the current costs that the Air Force has estimated through fiscal year 2015. Moreover, DOD’s total costs will be higher once life-cycle costs are included in these estimates. In addition, the Government of Japan is expected to provide up to an additional $6.09 billion in funding for infrastructure and facilities to support the Marine Corps relocation, which includes directly funding up to $2.8 billion in military construction projects on Guam.'
Virgin Islands, Guam, and Northern Mariana Islands issues : hearings before the Subcommittee on Native American & Insular Affairs of the Committee on Resources, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, on Virgin Islands and Guam issues ... Resolution 433 ... H.R. 3721, July 24, 1996--Washington, DC; Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands issues, H.R. 3634 ... H.R. 3635 ... June 26, 1996--Washington, D.C (1996). - 416 s.
'As this committee knows from its involvement in land legislation, over one third of the land on Guam is owned by the federal government. Most of these land holdings belong to the military.' S. 5.
Fredsbevægelser: / Peace movements / les mouvements pacifistes / movimientos por la paz / Friedensbewegungen
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Sociale forhold: 2010 Guam Statistical Yearbook. Bureau of Statistics and Plans, 2011. - 521 s.
BNP - , landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Erhverv, handel og industri:
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter

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