Sydpolens topografi
Geografi ; natur ; klima ; geologi ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.

Antarktis / Antarctica / Antarctique / Antártida / Antarktika

Geografi: Græsk: Oprindelig betydning: Modsat bjør­nen, stjernebilledet Lille bjørn med Nord­stjernen. Kontinentet, landet, øerne og havet omkring Sydpolen: Det sydlige ishav, Sydhavet eller Sydpolarhavet. Antarktis er en del af jordens kryosfære (isdække), eksempelvis Larsen-ismassivet.
Greek: Original meaning: Opposite the bear, the constellation Little Bear with the North Star. Geography: Continent, the land, islands and the sea around the South Pole: the southern Arctic Ocean, the Southern Ocean or south polar waters. Antarctica is part of the earth's cryosphere (ice cover), for example, the Larsen ice mass or the Larsen ice shelter
Climate and Melting Variability in Antarctica. I: Eos, Vol. 91, No. 1, 5 January 2010.
Larsen-ismassivet er brækket – for tredje gang!: Onsdag kl. 10.45 meddelte britiske klimaforskere, at et isbjerg næsten så stort som Sjælland er brækket af ved Antarktis. Det er tredje gang, et sådant sammenbrud rammer den berømte Larsen-ishylde mod syd. Ingen kan vide, om det skyldes global opvarmning – frygten er, at der nu er sat fart på en forstærket afsmeltning af den antarktiske is. / : Jørgen Steen Nielsen. I: Information, 13. juli 2017.
Geographic Names of the Antarctic 2nd Edition. / : Fred G. Alberts. United States Board on Geographic Names, 1995.
'Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetbya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands.'
Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, 2010.
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, contains 11 chapters designated by the letters A through K. Chapter A provides a comprehensive, yet concise, review of the "State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments," and a "Map/Poster of the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere," and a set of eight "Supplemental Cryosphere Notes" about the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere and the Earth System. The next 10 chapters, B through K, are arranged geographically and present glaciological information from Landsat and other sources of historic and modern data on each of the geographic areas. Chapter B covers Antarctica; Chapter C, Greenland; Chapter D, Iceland; Chapter E, Continental Europe (except for the European part of the former Soviet Union), including the Alps, the Pyrenees, Norway, Sweden, Svalbard (Norway), and Jan Mayen (Norway); Chapter F, Asia, including the European part of the former Soviet Union, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan; Chapter G, Turkey, Iran, and Africa; Chapter H, Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and New Zealand; Chapter I, South America; Chapter J, North America (excluding Alaska); and Chapter K, Alaska. Chapters A–D each include map plates.
Grèce: le sens original: En face de l'ours, l'ours constellation peu avec l'étoile du Nord. Géographie: Continent, la terre, les îles et la mer autour du pôle Sud: le sud de l'océan Arctique, l'océan Austral au sud ou dans les eaux polaires.
Griego: significado original: Frente al oso, el oso pequeño con la constelación de la estrella del norte. Geografía: Continente, la tierra, las islas y el mar en torno al Polo Sur: el sur del Océano Ártico, el Océano Antártico al sur o aguas polares.
Griechischen: Original Bedeutung: Gegen-über der Bär, das Sternbild Kleiner Bär mit der Nordstern oder Polarstern. Geographie: Kontinent, das Land, Inseln und das Meer rund um den Südpol: der südliche Eismeer, das Süd-polarmeer oder Süden polaren Gewässern.
Natur, klima. Biodiversitet. Fauna og flora: Fisk. Fugle. Koralrev. Vådområder.
Nature, climate. Flora and fauna: Botanical gardens. Fish. Birds. Coral reefs. Wetlands
Flore et faune: Poissons. Oiseaux. Les récifs coralliens. Les zones humides.
Flora y fauna: Fish. Pájaros. Los arrecifes de coral. Los humedales.
Natur, Klima. Flora und Fauna: Botanische Gärten. Fisch. Vögeln. Korallenriffe. Feuchtgebiet, Feuchtbiotop.
International Network of Basin Organizations / Det internationale netværk af flodbassin organisationer.
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds (HANZAB) I-VII.
Pelembe, T. and Cooper, G.eds (2011). UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies: 2011 Biodiversity Snapshot. Peterborough, UK, Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
De Broyer C., Koubbi P., Griffi ths H.J., Raymond B., Udekem d’Acoz C. d’, Van de Putte A.P., Danis B., David B., Grant S., Gutt J., Held C., Hosie G., Huettmann F., Post A., Ropert-Coudert Y. (eds.), 2014. Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, XII + 498 pp.
Geologi og jordbundsforhold: Bjerge, vulkaner, jordskælv og ørkenområder:
Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and desert areas
Géologie: Montagnes, volcans, tremblements de terre et les zones désertiques
Geología: Montañas, volcanes, terremotos y zonas desérticas
Geologie: Berge, Vulkane, Erdbeben und Wüstengebiete
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker.
Antarctic Specially Protected Areas
Status of Antarctic Specially Protected Area and Antarctic Specially Managed Area Management Plans (Updated 2013)
eksempelvis: Management Plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 125
(Fossil Hill, Holz Stream (Madera Stream), Glacier Dome Bellingshausen (Collins Glacier), Halfthree Point, Suffield Point, Fossil Point, Gradzinski Cove and Skua Cove)
'An area of 1.8 km2 (444,79 acres) in the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (25 de Mayo), South Shetland Islands archipelago, was proposed as a SPA (Special Protected Area) by Chile four decades ago on the grounds of its uniqueness and paleontological richness. The area was officially designated SPA No 12 at ATCM IV (Santiago, 1966). After 42 years under different statuses (SPA, SSSI and ASPA), and numerous scientific studies, it is necessary to review whether these areas can be considered an ASPA, whether or not they can be defined as “an area designated to protect outstanding environmental, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness values”.'
Griffiths, H.J., et al.,Quantifying Antarctic marine biodiversity: The SCAR-MarBIN dataportal. Deep-Sea Research II(2010),doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.008
'The documentation and analysis of broad-scalebiological diversity requires modern databases.Here we describethe SCAR-Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) and demonstrate its value with a preliminary analysis of geographic patterns in species richness for a variety of marine taxa. SCAR-MarBIN is a webportal ( that compiles and manages existing and new information on Antarctic marine biodiversity; it currently links over140 datasets comprising over one million records. The portal is homet ot he Registry of Antarctic Marine Species(RAMS), an authoritative taxonomic list of marine species occurring in Antarctica.'
Ingels J, Vanreusel A, De Broyer C, Martin, P, De Ridder C, Dubois P, Dauby P, David B, d’ Udekem d’Acoz C, Robert H, , Catarino AI, Pierrat B, Havermans C, Pasotti F, Guilini K, Hauquier F. BIANZO II: Biodiversity of three representative groups of the Antarctic Zoobenthos - Coping with Change. Final Report. Brussels : Belgian Science Policy 2011 – 133 p. (Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development, SSD).
The biodiversity and ecology of Antarctic lakes: models for evolution Johanna Laybourn-Parry and David A. Pearce. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2007) 362, 2273–2289 doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1945. Published online 21 May 2007.
Cold Regions Bibliography.
Lake Vostok.
Warming Climate May Release Vast Amounts Of Carbon From Long-Frozen Arctic Soils. / :, 27 April 2015.

Antarktis: Demografi:

Antarktis er, ifølge Antarktis-traktaten, et afrustet ingenmandsland. Der er ingen fastboende befolkning, 2011.
Antarctica is, according to the Antarctic Treaty, a disarmed no man's land. There is no resident population, 2011.
L'Antarctique est, selon le Traité sur l'Antarctique, une terre pas désarmé l'homme. Il n'existe pas de population résidente, 2011.
La Antártida es, de acuerdo con el Tratado Antártico, un desarmado tierra de nadie. No hay una población residente de 2011.
Die Antarktis ist nach dem Antarktis-Vertrag, entwaffnet ein Niemandsland. Es gibt keine Wohnbevölkerung, 2011.
Se: Geographic names of Antarctica
Politik: International politik vedrørende Antarktis i perioden fra anden verdenskrig til og med den første del af den kolde krig er beskrevet i opslaget om Antarktis-traktaten.
Politics: International policy on Antarctica during the period from WWII through the early part of the cold war is described in the entry on the Antarctic Treaty.
Politique: La politique internationale sur l'Antarctique au cours de la période allant de la Seconde Guerre mondiale jusqu'au début de la guerre froide est décrite dans l'article sur le Traité sur l'Antarctique.
Política: La política internacional en la Antártida durante el período de la Segunda Guerra Mundial a través de la primera parte de la guerra fría se describe en la entrada en el Tratado Antártico.
Politik: Internationale Politik in der Antarktis in der Zeit vom Zweiten Weltkrieg über die ersten Monate des Kalten Krieges in der Eintrag auf der Antarktis-Vertrag beschrieben.
Naturresourcer: Jern, kobber, mangan, molybdæn, nikkel, olie og naturgas, sølv, titanium uran.
Se også: Arktisk ; Falklandsøerne ; Den geografiske sydpol ; den magnetiske sydpol ; the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.
See also: The geographic South Pole, the magnetic south pole, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.


The Peace Palace Library: Antactica.
Larsen, Henrik: Et russisk bor prikkede hul i indlandsisen. I: Politiken, 02/12/2012.

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