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Tyrkiets krige

Tyrkiets deltagelse i krige / Participation in wars / Participation à des guerres / La participación en las guerras / Beteiligung an Kriegen
Tyrkiet var en del af Det ottomanske rige

Se tillige: Afrikanske krige ; Krige fra Amerika ; Krige fra Asien ; Krige fra Europa ; Krige fra Oceanien (inkl. Australien og New Zealand)
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Litteratur

Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights: Rupert Colville
Geneva , 15 October 2019
Syria
Since the Turkish military offensive began on 9 October, we have verified a number of civilian casualties each day as a result of airstrikes, ground-based strikes and sniper fire. The worst incident we are aware of so far, which we are still seeking to fully verify, is a report that at least four civilians, including two journalists, were killed and tens of others injured when a convoy of vehicles was hit by a Turkish airstrike. The attack reportedly took place on the Tel-Tamor - Ras al-Ain Highway on Sunday (13 October).
The Turkish authorities have reported that 18 civilians have been killed in Turkey, including a nine-month-old baby, by cross-border mortar and sniper fire by Kurdish fighters, since this new conflict started last week.
We have received reports and viewed two separate pieces of video footage showing what appear to be summary executions carried out by fighters belonging to the Ahrar al-Sharqiya armed group, which is affiliated with Turkey, on 12 October. One of the videos both of which have been widely shared on social media seems to show the fighters filming themselves capturing and executing three Kurdish captives on the al-Hassakeh Manbij (M4) Highway. Only one of the captives appeared to be wearing military uniform.
On the same day, we received reports indicating that a well-known Kurdish female politician, Hevrin Khalaf, was also executed on the same highway, apparently also by Ahrar al-Sharqiya fighters.
Civilians, as well as all hors de combat individuals such as captured fighters, are to be protected. Under international human rights and international humanitarian law, summary executions are serious violations and may amount to a war crime. Turkey could be deemed responsible as a State for violations committed by their affiliated armed groups, as long as Turkey exercises effective control over these groups, or the operations in the course of which those violations occurred.
We are continuing to gather information about both these serious violations, and we urge the Turkish authorities to immediately launch an impartial, transparent and independent investigation into both incidents, and to apprehend those responsible, some of whom should be easily identifiable from the video footage they themselves shared on social media.
We are also appalled to learn of further attacks that affected medical facilities, which have been a particular and persistent feature of the conflict in Syria. As of yesterday, we had received reports of five such attacks: on 11 October, four health facilities were damaged as a result of what were alleged to be airstrikes and ground-based strikes by Turkish forces and affiliated armed groups in the areas of Ras al-Ain, Ain al-Arab, Tel Abyad and al-Malikya; and the following day, 12 October, a medical point belonging to the Kurdish Red Crescent was directly hit and damaged by an airstrike. Reports received by the UN Human Rights Office indicated that the Kurdish de facto authorities have relocated hospital equipment that ceased to function in al-Hassakeh and Ar-Raqqa Governorates because of the ongoing intensified bombardment.
We are also receiving reports of other attacks on civilian infrastructure, including power lines, water supplies and bakeries.
The Turco-Mongol Invasions and the Lords of Armenia in the 13th-14th Centuries. / Robert Bedrosian. Columbia University, 1979.
- https://archive.org/details/TurcoMongolInvasionsofArmenia
- http://rbedrosian.com/dissert.html
'Robert Bedrosian's Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, 1979), Zipped HTML files, or pdf format available. This study has two principal aims. A review of the salient political and military events associated with the Turco-Mongol invasions of Armenia is one aim. Who were the invaders, and in what ways were they alike and dissimilar?
The second aim of the study is an examination of the impact(s) of the invasions and domination(s) of the 13 -14th centuries on Armenia's lordly naxarar rulers. While many aspects of both areas of investigation (i.e, regarding the invasions and dominations and their impacts) have already been examined by scholars, to the present no single study has focussed on the invasions of Armenia as phenomena. Similarly, while diverse aspects of Armenia's socio-eonomic and political history in the 13-14th centuries have been examined by others, no single study of the lordly heads of that society has as yet been undertaken. The present work, therefore, attempts to fill a void existing in Armenian scholarship. It is hoped that this study will likewise serve as an introduction to 13-14th century Armenian history for Western scholars, to whom Armenia in this period has remained terra incognita. '
Green F.V. The Russian Army and Its Campaigns in Turkey in 1877–78 (New York 1879).
- https://archive.org/details/russianarmyitsca00greeuoft
Den kolde krig / the Cold War
Tyrkiet var medlem af CENTO. Trumandoktrinen. Treaty of Friendship and Collaboration Between the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Greece and The Turkish Republic, Signed at Ankara, on 28 February 1953.
http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/firbalk.htm
Der er amerikanske flybaser og kernevåben i Tyrkiet ved Incirlik. De amerikanske Thor mellemdistaneraketter i Tyrkiet blev i 1960erneskiftet ud med Polaris ubåde der blev stationeret i Middelhavet. Nu er der, ifølge , U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe A Review of Post-Cold War Policy, Force Levels, and War Planning 2005, 90 amerikanske atombomber i Tyrkiet The status of U.S. nuclear weapons in Turkey. By Alexandra Bell and Benjamin Loehrke. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,november 2009.
- http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/features/the-status-of-us-nuclear-weapons-turkey og
- http://nukestrat.com/pubs/EuroBombs.pdf

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