Det danske Fredsakademi

Kronologi over fredssagen og international politik 12. september 2005 / Timeline September 12, 2005

Version 3.5

11. September 2005, 13. September 2005

History/Archives Community Rally to Assist in Katrina Aftermath
NCH Washington Update (vol. 11, #34; 9 September 2005)
As emergency officials continue to find and rescue survivors, recover bodies, and clean up the wreckage from Hurricane Katrina, which devastated a significant portion of the Gulf Coast nearly two weeks ago, efforts are also underway by various history and archival organizations to pitch in and begin to survey the damage done to sites of historical significance and to preserve as much as possible. This rescue and salvage effort takes on special importance in a part of the country that is especially rich with historic sites, artifacts, and archives.
In New Orleans, aerial photos indicate that the French Quarter is relatively dry and intact. Locations such as the Caf du Monde, Preservation Hall, and St. Louis Cathedral appear to have survived the brunt of the storm. Museum directors have also determined that the New Orleans Museum of Art, home to one of the most important collections in the south, has also been spared from severe damage.
However, other sections of the city were not so fortunate. Virtually everything in the Latin Quarter and the Garden District suffered some damage. Preliminary reports indicate that the New Orleans Public Library was hit hard and its archive of city records, which are housed in the basement of the building, probably experienced flooding. At the New Orleans Notarial Archives, which hold some 40 million pages of signed acts compiled by notaries of new Orleans over three centuries, initial efforts to save historical documents were unsuccessful. A Swedish document salvage firm, hired by the archives to freeze-dry records to remove the moisture from them, was turned away by uniformed personnel as they attempted to enter the city. There are a considerable number of freezer trucks available as soon as they are allowed to access areas currently closed. In the case of both the public library and the notarial archives, time is of the essence as humidity, mold, and water damage may decimate these collections in a matter of days.
Many of the city's oldest historic neighborhoods were completely lost to the floods. The U.S. Mint, which was once captured by the Confederate Army, is missing part of its roof, while uncertainty remains about the artifacts inside.
Katrina has affected other important historic sites in Louisiana as well. Fort Jackson, located south of New Orleans, location of an important Civil War naval battle, has suffered extensive flooding. In addition, the Louisiana State Museum suffered moderate to extensive damage.
In Mississippi, the Old Capitol Museum had a third of its copper roof blown off, resulting in the flooding of a storage room and exhibit area. Beauvoir, the home of Jefferson Davis, located in Biloxi, was virtually destroyed. Throughout the ravished parts of the Gulf Coast, numerous trees and old houses have been lost, in many cases with no hope of recovery. Many unanswered questions remain as to the condition of historical artifacts that were in private hands, or the condition of other archival collections that may have survived the floodwaters.
As the recovery efforts continue, historical preservation teams will begin the long process of retrieving documents, photographs, and other important pieces of history that have helped to shape a nation. What follows is a summary of the emergency recovery and assistance efforts we know about.
An emergency team from the National Park Service Museum Resource Center will soon be arriving in New Orleans to begin its preservation work, salvaging every artifact they possibly can and protecting them from mildew. They will be concentrating specifically on artifacts located at the Jazz Museum, the Louis Armstrong home, the archives at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park, and the Chalmette battlefield. The National Park Service has also assembled a technical leaflet entitled After the Flood: Emergency Stabilization and Conservation Methods, which offers suggestions on how to prevent additional damage and how to maintain historical integrity: .
The Heritage Emergency Task Force is also stepping in to assist in the recovery. This task force was created for the purpose of assisting cultural heritage institutions in the protection of their collections in the event of natural disasters. Co-sponsored by Heritage Preservation, Inc. and the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA), it includes over 30 federal agencies. At the present time, the task force is working to coordinate information with the various historical institutions along the Gulf Coast and are encouraging everyone to donate money to the Disaster Relief Fund, as health and safety remain the highest priorities. The FEMA web page at
and the Heritage Emergency National Task Force webpage
have links to hurricane response information posted that cover such topics as how to get aid (both individuals and governments), how to respond and salvage, and how to mitigate damage.
The Library of Congress will be offering free rewash services to institutions impacted by the hurricane for motion picture films, provided that the film can be transported to the lab at Wright Patterson Air Force Base. Those interested in the offer should contact Lance Watsky at
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is making available $1 million in hurricane relief for Gulf Coast cultural resources. The emergency grants of up to $30,000 are being made available through the executive directors of the state humanities councils in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana and are available to libraries, museums, colleges, universities and other cultural and historical institutions affected by the hurricane. For additional information about the program, tap into .
In order to help with assessing the damage that has been done to other historical institutions, the American Association for State and Local History (AASLH), working with the American Association of Museums, has put together a "first reports" webpage that can be accessed at;
other information is being updated constantly at
and at the AAM website at .
The AASLH has also established a Historical Resources Recovery Fund in which 100% of the dollars secured will be used for the recovery of historical resources in the affected states. Additional information is available at .
A disaster relief for museums web site established by the International Council on Museums (ICOM) also provides exhaustive and updated information on the effects of the disaster with regard to museums; visit the site at .
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is also raising funds to assist in the recovery of historical properties and is looking for volunteers skilled in preservation, architecture, engineering, and small business development. People interested in serving on one of the assessment teams scheduled to go to affected areas when allowed in should go to the Trust's webpage at
for further information.
The Society of American Archivists (SAA) has begun a list of volunteers willing to help with disaster recovery. Interested parties can visit;
additional information including a joint statement by the archival community can be viewed at .
One of the first organizations to act especially swiftly in efforts to assist is the Society of Southwest Archivists (SSA). That organization has established a weblog to share information about colleagues and others in Louisiana and Mississippi who have been affected by the hurricane. It can be viewed at
or contact Brenda Gunn at
for additional information. One bit of good news is that there do not appear to be any archivists missing - all have been accounted for and have reported in to their home institutions.
The Organization of American Historians (OAH) along with the American Historical Association and the Southern Historical Association have joined hands to establish a "historians to historians" message board; it is a place where historians can offer or request assistance. Several categories such as "Need help-housing" and "Need help-transportation" have been set up to facilitate communication and assistance. For the site, visit the OAH webpage at
where the URL link (still under development at this writing) is prominently displayed.
On the academic front, while many of the colleges and universities affected by Hurricane Katrina will soon resume classes, Tulane University (information about Tulane is available at )
and Loyola University will remain closed until the spring semester in order to repair the damages to their infrastructure, technology, and communication systems. Students enrolled at both Tulane and Loyola are being encouraged to attend nearby schools and to transfer credits. The History News Network (HNN) has established a blog where the Tulane history students and faculty can communicate with each other. It can be viewed at .
In addition, the Chronicle of Higher Education has created a webpage where affected colleges, associations, and government agencies providing assistance can post messages; go to .
Colleges and Universities across the country are offering temporary admission for students directly affected by the hurricane and its aftermath. For example, some schools in Texas, where many residents of Louisiana fled, will allow out-of-state students to enroll at in-state tuition rates. The University of Miami has said that they will allow students to take classes there, collect tuition, and hold it in escrow for the colleges that the students would otherwise attend. The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History has also said that they would offer temporary positions to the faculty members of the affected universities.

Support to peacebuilding: examples of EU action
Reference: MEMO/05/313
Brussels, 12 September 2005
The European Union provides a considerable contribution to peacebuilding efforts in all regions of the world.
The examples described below are not an exhaustive list, but demonstrate the breadth of the EU’s contribution to peacebulding, not only the geographical spread of EU activity but the wide range of policies and instruments deployed, covering support for peacekeeping operations, peace processes, peace negotiations and reconciliation efforts; Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration and Rehabilitation (DDRR); de-mining; security sector reform; civilian administration and good governance; democratisation; strengthening of the rule of law; justice reform; ensuring respect for human rights; children related post-conflict assistance; institution building, independent media, and truth commissions; the facilitation of the transition from crisis situation to normal cooperation; addressing degradation and exploitation of natural resources; tackling proliferation of small and light weapons; as well as targeted economic and other measures such as relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction operations and development assistance. Trade related measures have also played a critical role in addressing post-conflict challenges.
Rule of law, Human Rights and democratization
The reinforcement of the rule of law and respect for human rights is an indispensable element in peacebuilding. The EC supports a wide range of programmes with this goal through country and regional funding and through the European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR).
Addressing impunity for violations of human rights is also a priority in building stable, peaceful societies. The EC has been supporting for promotion of a strong, effective International Criminal Court, including through sustained funding for the NGO Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC) which draws together 2,000 member organizations from 150 countries.
The EC has also provided consistent political and financial support to other existing special tribunals, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Rwanda Tribunal, and has called for the rapid establishment of the Khmer Rouge Special Chambers in Cambodia. Projects to reinforce the fight against impunity at a more grassroots level have also been funded, for example to train judges involved in the gacaca process in Rwanda. Access to justice more generally is a key feature of EIDHR programmes, with recent major initiatives including a regional project in Latin America with the Inter-American Commission for Human Rights and a project with the Nepal Bar Organisation to improve free legal aid, human rights and access to justice in that country.
Improving the human rights “infrastructure” has also been a focus of the EC activities at both the international and national levels, making a strong – though indirect – contribution to peacebuilding. At country level, projects have strengthened human rights ombudsmen, for example in Guatemala. At the international level, the EC has facilitated the work of mechanisms which serve to scrutinise States’ compliance with human rights obligations, such as the UN Treaty Bodies, through support to the OHCHR...
Kimberley Process and the link between conflict and the exploitation of natural resources
The link between natural resource exploitation and conflict is a crucial element in post-conflict stabilization and conflict prevention. The EC, which is responsible for the external trade policy of the EU, is playing a leading role in multilateral efforts to break the link between the exploitation and illicit trade in natural resources and conflict. In particular, the EC (representing the EU as a whole) is a leading Participant in the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for diamonds. The Kimberley Process is making a crucial contribution to ensuring transparency and proper regulation of the diamond sector in many countries which have been ravaged by diamond-fuelled conflict (such as Sierra Leone, DRC, or Angola), and is thus a crucial element in the stabilization and reconstruction of many African countries affected by violent conflict in recent years. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is implemented throughout the EU by a European Community Regulation (No 2368/2002), adopted under Article 133 of the EC Treaty.
Moreover, the EC is currently Chair of the Working Group on Monitoring of the Kimberley Process, and thus playing a leading role in ensuring implementation of the Scheme. Separately, the EC is also taking the lead in efforts to ensure proper and transparent management of the international timber trade (through its Forestry Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade initiative).
Disarmament: Small Arms and Light Weapons
The accumulation and proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) continues to threaten the international security, human safety, as well as socio-economic stability. The problem has a particularly negative influence on conflict prevention and fragile post-conflict reconstruction processes in Africa. In 1997, recognising the security and humanitarian implications of the spread of small arms, the EU Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit Trafficking in Conventional Weapons was adopted. A year later, the EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports as well as the Joint Action on the EU’s contribution to combating the destabilising accumulation and spread of small arms were adopted. In 2001 the EU played an active role at the UN Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. The resulting UN Programme of Action adds to earlier EU commitments. In the same year the European Community became a signatory to the UN Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, which was negotiated under the UN Convention against Trans-national Organised Crime.
In 2003-2004, 19 projects related to Small Arms and Light Weapons in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries were financed through the European Development Fund (total funding €255 million). 18 actions were funded in other parts of the world from 1999 to 2004. They included actions in Albania, Latin America and Cambodia and support to the UNDP and Stability Pact “South East Europe Regional Clearinghouse for Small Arms Reduction (SEESAC)” in Belgrade (total support so far in excess of €13 million). The EC has also launched two wide-ranging Pilot Projects in Northern Africa and South East Europe linked to SALW and Explosive Remnants of War.
Support for international mine action continues to be among the political priorities of the EU, in view of the contribution this can bring to the promotion of peace and stability globally and to the lessening of human suffering in mine-affected regions. In this respect the EU attaches great importance to the goals of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (the Mine Ban Treaty, from 1997).
The EC has shown a sustained commitment to the problem of mines by steadily increasing funding. The total EU (Member States and the EC) support to the fight against landmines only in the period 1997-2003 reached the record figure of more than €842 million. This represents close to half of the total world-wide assistance generated in that time (amounting to USD 2 billion).
Moreover, under the EC Mine Action Strategy 2005-2007 it is projected that the EC assistance alone will be increased to at least €140 million (from €125,745 in 2002-2004).
The UN is one of the key partners of the EC in Mine Action. Close cooperation is on-going in particular through support and collaboration with the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and the UNDP.
The EC has provided support to peace keeping operations in Burundi under the authority of the African Union (AU), in order to (i) offer urgent assistance to the implementation of a fragile peace process; and (ii) promote a return to stability and national reconciliation (€25 million in 2003). This ended in June 2004 as the UN took over the peace-keeping activities. In addition, technical assistance has been provided on the ground for sound financial management and monitoring of the operation.
The EC has supported Security Sector reform related work, notably “Support to Strategic Leadership Training Workshops” in 2003 (€96.000), aiming at rebuilding a truly national army in which the different political and ethnic groups can have confidence. The Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in 2003 conducted workshops on security sector reform for highest-level Army and Rebel commanders.
The EC is also supporting the current electoral process with €4.4 million.
Democratic Republic of Congo
Since the beginning of the Transition process in 2002 the EC has progressively made funds available for the Democratic Republic of Congo to restore peace and rebuild basic infrastructure (€700 for the period 2002-2005). The general strategy of the EC is to mainstream conflict prevention and peace building in all projects. However, out of the above amounts, specific support has been provided to peacebuilding activities such as: a) Support of Transitional Institutions; b) Training and equipment of the Integrated Police Force in Kinshasa, UPI (the UPI plays a key role in the DRC transition process, providing security and protection to the transition institutions of the state; the support is aimed at rehabilitation of training facilities for UPI, training of UPI officers/staff and an advice, monitoring and mentoring mission targeting the trained UPI officers); c) Support to the electoral process; d) Support to training and equipment of national police in order to secure the electoral process; e) Support to Security Sector Reform; f) Support to Justice and Rule of Law; and g) Small arms collection and destruction. Taken together, support to these actions amounts to around €137 million.
EC contribution to the restoration of the legal system in Bunia.
The objective of this programme of €585.000 was to end the de-facto impunity for serious civil offences in Bunia/Ituri through support to the installation of the building blocks of a transparent and functioning legal system (incl. courts, prosecutors, legal defence and a prison). Although there were some delays by the DRC Government in nominating new judges to Ituri and despite the difficult conditions on the ground (security, access, etc), the project achieved its objectives, at least in the short term. In addition to wider information campaigns among the general public, magistrates and other legal staff at the court as well as legal defenders attended specifically designed capacity building programmes. The court (Tribunal de Grande Instance) in Bunia started working on 17 February 2004, 300 cases were initiated, and some 50 of them reached a verdict during the project period. The prison was opened and held over 100 prisoners at the end of the project in July 2004.
So far EC contributed to the ceasefire negotiations in Chad in 2004 and about €92 million to the African Union (AU) peace-building activities from the African Peace Facility (APF). In April 2005, a conference attended by more than 60 countries was held for rebuilding Sudan, co-hosted by the UN, the World Bank, Norway and the Government of Sudan. The global pledge has reached USD 4.6 billion; the EC part amounts to €590 million for the period 2005-2007.
The EC has also supported the Naivasha Sudan Peace Process with € 1.5 million. This programme contained two components, both contracted with the IGAD Secretariat for Peace in the Sudan: 1) Direct support to the IGAD–led Naivasha Peace talks between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), (July 2004), and 2) Support to the functioning of the international Joint Verification and Monitoring Team (VMT) entrusted with the monitoring of the cessation of hostilities agreement in southern Sudan (€950.000, started in July 2004).
The Naivasha peace process led to the signature of a comprehensive peace agreement in January 2005 including a permanent ceasefire and accords on sharing of wealth and power. Contributing to this process through the monitoring of the earlier agreed cease-fire, the VMT will during the transitory phase continue its monitoring tasks (according to the new permanent cease-fire) and prepare for an expanded monitoring mission.
Support to the African Union
The EC finances a programme in support of the African Union peace building and transition activities (€12 million; signed in April 2003), the prime objective of which is to fund the operational activities of the Peace and Security Council, and secondly to work on AU capacity building in the transition period. This support programme is based on the AU indicative work programme on peace and security issues and it will foremost finance AU mediation and peace monitoring activities.
The African Peace facility
The African Peace Facility was created to provide the African Union and other African regional organisations with the resources to mount effective peace making and peace keeping operations (total amount of the facility €250 million), and thus provide backing from the EU to the emerging African resolve to deal with conflicts on the continent with African solutions.
Peace keeping is costly. The idea of an EC funded peace facility came from African Union leaders. At their 2003 Summit in Maputo, they asked the EU to help them fund such operations in a novel way. The African Peace facility is led, operated and staffed by Africans. It is based on the principles of ownership, African solidarity and the creation of necessary conditions for development...

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