Det danske Fredsakademi

Fredsakademiets lærerintroduktion til første verdenskrig

Generelt om første verdenskrig

Årsagerne til første verdenskrig,
A Chronology of the Mediation Attempts in July 1914, Edward Rawes
The International Internet Encyclopedia of the First World War,
Trenches on the Web - - omfattende, men grafisk tung site om første verdenskrig,
The World War I Document Archive - - Stort arkiv med komplette tekster relaterende til første verdenskrig,
Hart, David: Discussion and reading on WW1: Responses to War: An intellectual and cultural history, - Meget omfattende litteraturhenvisninger, studievejledninger og forslag til opgaver om første verdenskrig.
Section 14: World War I and Cultural Anxiety/Shaping of the Modern World/Brooklyn College. Omfattende og bred studievejledning til stort set alle aspekter omkring første verdenskrig.
Hoover Institution Archives holdings on World War, 1914-1916. Omfattende arkivfortegnelse over organisatione og personalia i forbindelse med første verdenskrig. Militære, nødhjælsparbejdere, diplomater, journalister ect.. Kan bruges til generel orientering om en lang række emner vedrørende verdenskrigen.
Chronology of the First World War,
Tyskland under første verdenskrig, - Catalogue des «Bibliothèque et Musée de la Guerre» Catalogue méthodique du fonds allemand de la Bibliothèque. Rédigé par Jean Dubois avec la collaboration du Charles Appuhn. Introd. par Camille Bloch Vol I-II(1921) ; Société de l'histoire de la guerre. Publications. 1. sér) -
Die Weimarer Republik: Zeittafel und Quellenrepertorium.

Strejker i våbenindustrien


Nye våben

Kemisk krigsførelse under første verdenskrig, tanks.

Sociale aspekter

Tab første verdenskrig,
Tab første verdenskrig - Opdelt på lande,
A Bibliography of Great War Medicine,
Financiellle udgifter omkring verdenskrigen,
Preliminary Economic Studies of the War
Economic and Social History of the World War
og Economic and Social History of the World War. Edited by James T. Shotwell, Yale Univ. Press,
The Medical Front, WWI,
Great War "Before and After" Photos,
Women of WWI and of the Avant-Garde - bibliografi.
When the Boys Came Home,

Skønlitteratur - French Antiwar Writers and Artists

René Arcos, Georges Bannerot, Lucien Banville, Charles Baudouin, Nicolas Beauduin, Charles Désiré Berthold-Mahn, Joseph Billiet, Gaston Bornstein, Loïs Cendré, Georges Chennevière, Paul Colin, Eugène Dabit, Henri Dalby, Eugene Camille Délong (Genold), Albert Doyen (and Les Fêtes du peuple), Noélie Drous, Georges Duhamel, Édouard Dujardin, Luc Durtain, Noël Garnier, André Germain, Albert Gleizes, Ivan Goll, Edmé Goyard, Henri Guilbeaux, Pierre Hamelryckx, Lucien Jacques, Pierre Jean Jouve, Paul Lantelme, Pierre Larivière, Marc de Larréguy (de Civrieux), Marcel Lebarbier, Jean Lunaire, Marcel Martinet, Frans Masereel, Henry de Montherlant, Cécile Périn, Charles Picart Le Doux, Georges Pioch, Maurice Pottecher, Jean-Michel Renaitour, Romain Rolland, Jules Romains, Jean de Saint-Prix, Claude Salives (Claude le Maguet), Jean-Paul Samson, Henriette Sauret, Marcel Sauvage, Paul Vaillant-Couturier, Alfred Varella, Théo Varlet, Emile Verhaeren, Madeleine Vernet, P.-J. Vidi, Charles. Vildrac.

Full-text transcriptions of Novels and other books of the WWI era, including the Parody Outline of History,
The Great War in a Different Light - Samtidige bøger og tidsskrifter, fotografier og gallerier,
Under Fire (Le Feu), Henri Barbusse, 1917,
WWI : Western Front - A biographical account of the Great War, and a comparison of two factual novels: 'All Quiet On The Western Front' and 'Gun Fodder'.


List over malere 1914-18 war - Art of the First World War.

censur - England

Defence of the Realm Act.

Also mentioned in John Masters' trilogy was English poet Siegfried Sassoon. He was a captain in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers when he wrote a manifesto condemning the war. It was read out in Parliament by Herbert Lees-Smith, a Liberal M.P. It read:

"I am making this statement as an act of wilful defiance of military authority because I believe that the war is being deliberately prolonged by those who have the power to end it. "I am a soldier convinced that I am acting on behalf of soldiers. I believe that the war upon which I entered as a war of defence and liberalisation has now become a war of aggression and conquest. "I have seen and endured the sufferings for ends which I believe to be evil and unjust. I am not protesting about the conduct of the war but against the political errors and insecurities for which the fighting men are being sacrificed."

The manifesto caused outrage and the authorities reacted quickly describing Sassoon as 'unwell' from his experiences in the trenches. In July 1917 he was admitted to Craiglockhart Hospital suffering from shellshock and was not declared fit for service until November. Three months later he was in trouble again when writing a poem:

"I stood with Death":
"I stood with the dead so forsaken and still
When dawn was grey I stood with the dead
And my slow heart said,
'You must kill, you must kill.'
Soldier, Soldier, the morning is red"

The Army considered court-marshalling Sassoon but his poetry hit a note with the British people at the time and no action was taken although amongst some his reputation was damaged to such an extent that he too became a 'casualty of war'.

Kilde: Military Matters - Articles

Bertrand Russell - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Still, Russell is best known in many circles as a result of his campaigns against the proliferation of nuclear weapons and against western involvement in the Vietnam War during the 1950s and 1960s. However, Russell's social activism stretches back at least as far as 1910, when he published his Anti-Suffragist Anxieties, and to 1916, when he was convicted and fined in connection with anti-war protests during World War I. Following his conviction, he was also dismissed from his post at Trinity College, Cambridge. Two years later, he was convicted a second time. The result was six months in prison. Russell also ran unsuccessfully for Parliament (in 1907, 1922, and 1923) and, together with his second wife, founded and operated an experimental school during the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Although he became the third Earl Russell upon the death of his brother in 1931, Russell's radicalism continued to make him a controversial figure well through middle-age. While teaching in the United States in the late 1930s, he was offered a teaching appointment at City College, New York. The appointment was revoked following a large number of public protests and a 1940 judicial decision which found him morally unfit to teach at the College.

In 1954 he delivered his famous "Man's Peril" broadcast on the BBC, condemning the Bikini H-bomb tests. A year later, together with Albert Einstein, he released the Russell-Einstein Manifesto calling for the curtailment of nuclear weapons. In 1957 he was a prime organizer of the first Pugwash Conference, which brought together a large number of scientists concerned about the nuclear issue. He became the founding president of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1958 and was once again imprisoned in connection with anti-nuclear protests in 1961. The media coverage surrounding his conviction only served to enhance Russell's reputation and to further inspire many of the idealistic youth who were sympathetic to his anti-war and anti-nuclear protests.


Præsten Bart de Ligt...


The Clear and Present Danger Doctrine, 1919
Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activity


All quiet on the western front. Milestone, Lewis; USA, 1930.
Blackadder goes forth. TV serie fra BBC; Engelsk, 1989.
Dr. Zhivago. Lean, David; Amerikansk/engelsk, 1965.
A farewell to arms. Glazer, Benjamin; USA, 1932.
Gallipoli. Weir, Peter; Australian, 1981.
La grande illusion. Renoir, Jean; Fransk, 1937.
J'accuse. Gance, Abel; Fransk, 1919.
King of hearts. Philippe de Broca; French-engelsk, 1966.
Oh, what a lovely war !. Attenborough, Richard; Engelsk, 1969.
Paths of glory. Kubrick, Stanley; USA, 1957.
the Return of the soldier. Bridges, Alan; Engelsk, 1985.
Rosa Luxemburg. Trotta, Margarethe von; Tysk, 1986.
Shoulder Arms, Chaplin, Charles: USA, 1919.
What price glory? Walsh, Raoul; USA, 1926.
the Yanks are coming. Wolper, David; USA, 1966.



Prologue: Military Service in the U.S. Army during World War I - They Answered the Call : Military Service in the United States Army during World War I, 1917-1919. Af: Mitchell Yockelson.



First World War - Conscientious Objectors & Exemptions from Service,

Antallet af engelske militærnægtere, Graham 1922, fremgår af: Orr, E. W.: The Quakers in Peace and War, 1920-1967. Eget forlag, 1974 s. 15 og er : 16.100.

  1. Arrested 6261
  2. Peltham Committee's Cases 3964
  3. Friends Ambulance Unit 1200
  4. War Victims Relief Commitee 200
  5. Working directly under Tribunals 900
  6. Non-Combatant Corps 3300
  7. Royal Army Medical Corps 100
  8. Evaded the Act 175

19 engelske militærnægtere dør under fangeskabet.


Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore College Peace Collection online library catalog Tripod

Excerpt from Rachel Waltner Goossen: Women Against the Good War: Conscientious Objection and Gender on the American Home Front, 1941-1947. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Militærnægterorganisationer, USA

the National Civil Liberties Bureau

the American Union Against Militarism

the American Civil Liberties Union

"As part of its investigations, the Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities (commonly referred as the Lusk Committee) probed the wartime "subversive" ventures of the National Civil Liberties Bureau (NCLB). The Committee charged the NCLB was in the forefront of a legitimate pacifist movement that was being manipulated by Socialist revolutionaries in order to influence U.S. foreign policy.

The NCLB was formed in 1917 as an outgrowth of the American Union Against Militarism, which itself was formed to work against American intervention in the war in Europe. One of the stated objectives of the NCLB was to assist the defense of conscientious objectors during World War I, and it served as a type of national clearinghouse of information on their legal defense. The NCLB changed its name in 1920 to the American Civil Liberties Union.

Activities investigated by the committee included encouraging individuals to register as conscientious objectors to escape military duty, assisting radical groups in obstructing the war effort, and furnishing attorneys for those objecting to military service. Correspondence between the NCLB and conscientious objectors from 32 states and 12 Army camps.

Kilde: Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activity.



British Library of Political and Economic Science 2000 - samtidige pjecer om pacifisme, nedrustning og våbenhandel.
The History of Sexuality : Women, War, and Peace in Modern History af Professor Sandi E. Cooper.
Danmark: Terp, Holger: Jubilæumsskrift for Kvindernes Internationale Liga for Fred og Frihed,
Tyskland - OHNE UNS - Justiz und Pazifismus, Aus Ausgabe 3-4/93 (Juli)


The Woman's Peace Party
JX1965 C64 1988 (WMN). Collected Records of the Woman's Peace Party, 1914-1920 : Guide to the scholarly resources microfilm edition. Wilmington, DL: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1988. Kilde: Microform Guides List.

Tip: Brug kronologien til at finde nogel af svarene på opgaverne.


Helmut og Wieland Herzfeld opretter et forlag hvor Helmut laver fotomontager, der blev brugt som postkort. Begge var socialister og ville have deres fredsbudskab ud til så mange som muligt. Helmut ændrer i protest mod krigen sit navn til John Heartfield.


Udarbejdelse af undervisningsforløb på forskellige klassetrin.


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